sabato 15 dicembre 2018

Media & Tech - 15/12/2018

W4HM Daily HF-MF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #2018-350

Greetings to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the
world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” daily W4HM Daily HF/MF Radio Wave Propagation
Forecast.

It’s the only accurate daily global HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast produced on the planet.

I'm a heliophysicist, terrestrial/troposphere meteorologist/climatologist, physical oceanographer and one of the few on the planet with advanced education and forecast experience in all aforementioned disciplines. In terrestrial/troposphere weather forecasting I have 45 years of experience and in solar, space and geomagnetic weather forecasting 34 years.

This is created and disseminated by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM in Lakeland, FL, USA © 1988-2018.

If you find this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your
hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me
know that at


I enjoy hearing from likeminded fellow radio enthusiasts.

Hams and SWLs that are interested in solar, space & geomagnetic weather as
well as radio wave propagation are a special group of people interested in
broadening their knowledge in science.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

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>>>>>W4HM Solar Cycle 24 Update and Solar Cycle 25 Forecast- Short and to the point.

Solar minimum may begin later this year and may last longer than any previous solar cycle in the 20th century. When solar cycle 25 finally gets underway it could be the weakest since the middle of the 19th century. Another Dalton type lesser grand solar minimum may occur with a corresponding cooling of earth’s climate. This would negate anthropogenic climate change if it were occurring which it isn’t.

On February 1, 2008 I forecasted that solar cycle 24 would be the smallest solar cycle in the past 100 years. That forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be almost non nonexistent.<<<<<

#350 Issued Saturday December 15, 2018 at 1515 UTC
 
Important Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Indices-

Solar activity was very low.

The daily solar flux index numbers (DSFI) were

71.5 70.8 71.7.

There had been 10 consecutive days with a 2000 UTC daily solar flux index number (SFI) of 70 or above.

The official daily sunspot number (DSSN) was 12.

There had been 1 day with an official sunspot number (DSSN) greater than 0.

In 2018 there had been 206 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

There had been a newly emerged sunspot group numbered 12731 located near N11E49 with a simple beta magnetic signature capable of releasing a very small B class solar flare and an isolated small C class solar flare.

The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition of

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0.

The 24 hour period planetary A index (Ap) maximum and minimum values ranged between

3 & 0,

which had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum Disturbance Storm Time Index (Dst) ranged between

-7 & +5 nT.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed was 361 & 317 km/s.

>>>>>GLOBAL (HF) HIGH FREQUENCY (3000-30000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-<<<<<

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 15, 2018- steady.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 16, 2018- minor deterioration.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 17, 2018- steady.

Northern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast b-

>>>>>We are now in the winter season northern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.
The approximate 11000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes sooner due to less sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is higher than in the southern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and the ions more concentrated.
The approximately 3000-10000 kHz frequency range often stays open for DX all throughout the day due to a weaker D and E layer and therefore less RF signal absorption.<<<<<
Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9 +1 to 9 at night and S1-3 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+ 1 to 9 at night and S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S0 at night and S3-4 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,
28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.

Southern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the summer season southern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.

The 14000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes later due to more sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is lower than in the southern hemisphere as heating in the F2 layer of the ionosphere is higher and the layer ions less concentrated.

Almost daily during the northern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 25600- 26100 kHz and 28000-29700 kHz frequency ranges will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9+10 at night and S3-5 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+15 at night and S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S1-3 at night and S5-8 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,

28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.


>>>>>GLOBAL (MF) MEDIUM FREQUENCY (300-3000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-<<<<<

FORECASTED NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+5
*North <-> South To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+1
+South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S5-7

FORECASTED SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S9+5
*South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+1
+North <-> South To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S5-7

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Northern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S5-7
Mid Latitude
S9+10
Low latitude
S4-6

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Southern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S5-7
Mid Latitude
S9+5
Low latitude
S4-6


This HF/MF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF/MF radio wave propagation prediction software.
I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it still can’t
be distributed to the general public. It does outperform VOA CAP and PropLab.
I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary.

I also check global HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio
receivers on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if
and when necessary.

And last but not least I look at ionsonde stations on every continent of the
globe.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25
watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on
100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array
antenna.

The MF broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 50,000 watts (50 kw) and an omnidirectional vertical antenna.

Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable
by the average radio enthusiast.

>>>>>THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL ON SOLAR SPACE, GEOMAGNETIC WEATHER OBSERVING AND FORECASTING AS WELL AS GOINGS ON IN EARTH’S IONOSPHERE.<<<<<
Globally HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2). Also by propagation path.

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio.

Lower high frequency (80-30 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner not so much by variations in the maximum usable frequency
(MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to
geomagnetic elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms (Kp-5 &
greater) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the altitude of
the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D
layer RF signal absorption due to hard x-rays, galactic cosmic waves,
elevated background solar flux levels greater than B0 and energetic proton
flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

Higher frequency (20-10 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a
particular propagation path and time due to the current sunspot number and
also due to elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms of Kp-5 &
greater. Also D layer RF signal absorption due to elevated (greater than B0)
background solar flux levels. Also to a lesser extent elevated proton flux
at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

>>>>>GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-<<<<<

NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal
intellectual property. Therefore the HF radio wave propagation indices
interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2018 by Thomas F.
Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is
allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.

All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to
see the best global high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation possible,
something that happens only rarely.

1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.

2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.

3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation
of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days
consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer
than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days
consecutively, greater than C1 best.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign,
indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora
absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF
signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery
time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A
positive number is best.

>>>>>GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL MF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-<<<<<

Medium frequency (300-3000 khz) radio wave propagation conditions are impacted in a negative manner not by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to energetic electron flux levels at energies greater than 2 MeV (2+1), geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-3-4) and geomagnetic storms (Kp-5 & >) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the general altitude of the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D layer signal absorption due to elevated background solar flux levels greater than A0, proton flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0), hard x-rays and galactic cosmic rays.
There is also the issue of magneto ionic power coupling. Antenna polarization plays a large role in the success of a long haul MF DX contact. As a MF RF signal traverses Earth's magnetic lines of force in a perpendicular manner on high and mid latitude paths say between W3 land and SM, higher angle horizontally polarized signals are more readily absorbed than lower angle vertically polarized signals. On other propagation paths on the globe opposite results can be found, i.e., horizontally polarized signals suffer less absorption on a propagation path between VK6 and W6 or S9 and W4.
Unfortunately the simplest way to look at medium frequencies with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one maximum distance refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
All 13 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global medium frequency (MF) radio wave propagation possible.
The simplest way to look at medium frequencies (MF) with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.
2.) A daily sunspot number under 100, under 70 best.
3.) A daily sunspot number no higher then the 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic proton flux levels no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels of A0 for several days consecutively.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.
11.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.
12.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).
13. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.

Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF/MF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW
public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this
daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted ©
1988-2018 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF/MF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science and therefore also an art. The forecasts are not official but for
educational and hobby related purposes only and are subject to human error
and acts of God, therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.

Two killed in accident at Antarctic research station

Two fire technicians at a US scientific station in Antarctica have died after being found unconscious, according to the National Science Foundation (NSF).

The two technicians had been working on a fire-suppression system at McMurdo station on Ross Island, the foundation said on Wednesday. It said they were found on the floor by a helicopter pilot who had landed after spotting what appeared to be smoke from the building.

Both were taken from the building and given CPR. One died at the scene. The other was flown to a clinic and pronounced dead shortly after. It happened on Tuesday eastern US time at a generator building that powers a radio transmitter near the McMurdo station.

They were employed by a Virginia-based subcontractor, PAE , which provides logistical support to the US Antartica program that is managed by the foundation. NSF said it was not immediately releasing any personal information about the pair. The deaths were under investigation and would be reviewed by a panel convened by the foundation.

NSF spokesman Peter West said the deaths were not being treated as suspicious.

The K7RA Solar Update

Our recent reporting week (December 6-12) had sunspots on five of the seven days, with an average daily sunspot number of 9.7, up from 2.3 in the previous seven days. Average daily solar flux rose from 68.9 to 70.7. Geomagnetic indices were moderate, with average daily planetary A index rising from 7 to 8, and mid-latitude A index increasing from 4.9 to 6.4.

Predicted solar flux over the next 45 days is 70 on December 14-19, 68 on December 20-22, 70 on December 23 to January 4, 68 on January 5-18, and 70 on January 19-27.

Predicted planetary A index is 5 on December 14-15, 8 on December 16-17, 5 on December 18-27, then 8, 12, 10 and 8 on December 28-31, 5 on January 1-2, 10 on January 3-4, 8 on January 5-6, 5 on January 7, 8 on January 8-9, 5 on January 10-12, 8 on January 13-14, 5 on January 15-23, then 8, 12, 10 and 8 on January 24-27.



Geomagnetic activity forecast for the period December 14, 2018 to January 9, 2019 from F.K. Janda, OK1HH.

Geomagnetic field will be:

Quiet on December 14-15, 18-23,

Quiet to unsettled on December 16, 24-27, January 9

Quiet to active on December 17, 28, January 1-2

Unsettled to active on December 29, (30-31), January 3-8

No Active or disturbed days predicted.

Solar wind will intensify on December 15-18, 24-27, and 28-31, as well as January 1, 3-4, 5-7, and the 8th.

Parenthesis means lower probability of activity enhancement”



On December 11 N0JK reported on the ARRL 10-meter Contest from Kansas: "Much better conditions in the ARRL 10-meter contest this year than last.

“On Saturday afternoon, had E-skip on 10 to W4 and W5, which allowed links on to F2/TEP propagation to South America. Running just 5 watts, I logged CE, CX, LU and PY stations via Es link. Double hop Es to HK, P4 and PJ2. Single hop Es to W4 and W5.

“On Sunday the band conditions not nearly as good, but see the northeast states had strong Es to Florida. This in turn allowed them to link on to South America. See DX maps, which clearly show this classic setup. Also, strong single hop Es along the West Coast.

“I experienced some weak Es in Kansas, and heard CO8RH, but he faded out while I was fiddling with my hand key. I was able to work 9Z4Y on 10-meter CW."



Another report on last weekend's 10-meter contest was from Jeff Hartley, N8II in West Virginia: "Conditions last weekend were much better than last year in the ARRL 10-meter contest. My first contact beyond local range was VE2FK in Quebec at 0045Z (Friday local time) followed by contacts with stations in Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota starting 10 minutes later. Then Maine, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick came through, followed by the Gulf coast from Texas to Florida, all on sporadic E (Es). At 0220Z there was a brief double hop Es opening to Colorado and Nebraska. At around 0300Z, Florida came back in and even at 0420Z Florida stations were still good copy but fading.

“Saturday started slow until 1416Z when I found W0WP in Iowa, followed by one station in Wisconsin on scatter. The next opening was 1540Z when CE7VPQ in Chile was found on SSB (the first F2 contact) followed by Argentina and Brazil. Then, at 1622Z, Es started from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa, followed by Missouri, Nebraska, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Kansas.

“At 1740Z, Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas were loud and soon after XE2HQI in northern Mexico was found. Southern South America was back at 1800Z along with some F2 backscatter contacts into the W8/9 call areas. Then, New Mexico was found at 1826Z on either double hop Es or F2 and K6AM in California at 1831Z.

“For the next hour, a huge number of stations were worked, mostly in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Nevada, as well as backscatter into Ontario and W1/2 along with several XEs in Mexican states, mostly on F2. A big surprise was being called by VK2BJ in New South Wales, Australia on CW at 1851Z. It was my best DX of contest!

“The band stayed open to South America and Mexico until about 2035Z with my last contacts being with stations in Bonaire and Columbia. Another amazing contact was with ZL6YOTA (Youths on The Air) in New Zealand at 0200Z, probably via double hop Es into F2 on the other end.

“Sunday conditions were much poorer after a very good sporadic E opening to Florida until about 1420Z. There were marginal openings to South America along with some scatter (meteor and ionospheric). W0AIH in WI was almost constantly readable on ionospheric scatter and a few other Midwest stations were worked via scatter as well. Starting at 1518Z, Aruba, Curacao, and Venezuela were all added as new countries in a spotlight F2 opening. 

“Conditions were good enough to allow 63 contacts with Florida, 24 with Arizona, 9 with Mexico, and 23 with California. I also logged 69 locals in Maryland."



The latest from Dr. Tamitha Skov, WX6SWW: Whirlwind of a Season

“Dear Tad: It’s hard to believe I haven't written since Thanksgiving. Many of you already know I have had a challenging go of it over the last six weeks or so. Between the southern California wildfires coming so close to my home and now two members of my immediate family having emergency medical procedures, it’s been a whirlwind of a season! I cannot express the depth of my appreciation for all the notes of comfort and encouragement I have received from you recently. Your kind words and patience through it all have helped me stay positive and hopeful during this crazy ride.

"As for your recent emails, I am finally able to begin writing back. So, if you are expecting an answer from me, it will be coming in the next few days! Also, to play catch up, I recently did a live mini-course on Space Weather indices. This is a complicated topic that you can't find well explained anywhere. It has turned out to be one of my most popular courses and I've gotten amazing feedback about how helpful it has been to everyone. So, just in case you missed it but want to see it, I am including a link here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zVgZQqUYemc.”

“Concerning the forecast this week, we have been enjoying an extended period of moderately fast solar wind. The weak storming kept us at unsettled conditions, which brought aurora to high latitudes and improved GPS at low latitudes over the past 10 days. However, the Space Weather will slowly quiet down as we approach week's end. Thankfully, not all is going quiet. Three new active regions are now facing Earth and are boosting the solar flux. This means amateur and shortwave radio should improve, especially on Earth's day side. With any luck, these regions will continue to brighten the Sun's face over the next week. So, despite conditions quieting down, between the recent aurora and now the elevated flux, it looks like the Sun is already beginning to spread the holiday cheer!”

Here is Dr. Skov’s latest video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LcrsMDS5CkY



In last week’s bulletin, ARLP049, I noted a new updated forecast for smoothed sunspot numbers and solar flux from NOAA on pages 10-11 at: ftp://ftp.swpc.noaa.gov/pub/warehouse/2018/WeeklyPDF/prf2257.pdf

These seemed to show predicted activity headed for extremely low numbers out to the year 2022, with most of that year having no sunspots. I believe these numbers are suspect, because if you look at solar flux numbers they go to some low values that have not been seen ever before.

These smoothed numbers are a moving average over a whole year. It shows the smoothed solar flux going down to 59, which has not been seen ever before. I inspected daily solar flux during the last minimum and decided to look at the six months on both sides of 7/17/2008. If I average the flux values for a year centered on that date, I get a value of 68.68. Around that time in 2008-2009 there were extended periods with no sunspots.

So, I suspect there are errors in these predictions, and will wait for NOAA to clarify this forecast and probably correct them.



For more information concerning radio propagation, see the ARRL Technical Information Service at http://arrl.org/propagation-of-rf-signals. For an explanation of numbers used in this bulletin, see http://arrl.org/the-sun-the-earth-the-ionosphere.

An archive of past propagation bulletins is at http://arrl.org/w1aw-bulletins-archive-propagation. More good information and tutorials on propagation are at http://k9la.us/.

Monthly propagation charts between four USA regions and twelve overseas locations are at http://arrl.org/propagation.

Instructions for starting or ending email distribution of ARRL bulletins are at http://arrl.org/bulletins.

Sunspot numbers for December 6 through 12, 2018 were 17, 16, 12, 12, 0, 11, and 0, with a mean of 9.7. 10.7 cm flux was 69.7, 70.1, 70.5, 71.6, 71, 71, and 70.8, with a mean of 70.7. Estimated planetary A indices were 5, 10, 10, 9, 11, 7, and 4, with a mean of 8. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 3, 8, 10, 6, 8, 7, and 3, with a mean of 6.4.

Media & Tech L'Approfondimento - 15/12/2018

Mystery Alsmood 17545 imminent

Please check 17545, 1500-1600 Saturday only via France, as discovered last week. Little is known about it except it is weekly for Eritrea. What is the ID exactly? How is Alsmood pronounced? Is it definitely in Tigrinya, and/or some other language(s)? Is any contact info announced, website or e-mail? Any further clues to its source? 73, Glenn Hauser

Propagation News – 16 December 2018

As we are approaching Christmas we have a festive twist to the HF propagation report this week.

Firstly though, this week saw a lack of sunspots with the solar flux index around 70. Geomagnetic conditions were better than they have been though due to lack of coronal holes, with the K-index being two, one or zero as the week progressed. Next week NOAA says the solar flux index will probably be around 68 again, with quite settled geomagnetic conditions and a maximum K-index of two, or perhaps three.

If you fancy something a little different, Santa Claus and his ham radio elves are on from Romania again in 2018 for the third consecutive year. The YP-XMAS call signs are a tradition and the Romanian RadioClub Association, ARR, says it aims to give moments of joy to the radio community around the winter holidays. The Santa Claus story via radio waves was started by Finnish radio amateurs, beginning with OH9SCL in 1986 and, later, the OF9X team. It has been taken over in recent years by different colleagues from several European countries. In 2018, Romania is preparing for the largest team with activators in all the districts of YO. Google YP-XMAS for details, but all you have to do is contact at least three different YP-XMAS call signs and they will be able to issue an electronic award directly from Santa Claus. HF propagation to Romania is probably best on 20 metres during the day, but falls back at night. 40 metres, or more likely 80 metres will be the favourite bands for contacts after dark.

VHF and up:

It’s a low pressure theme from one of the longer-range models, with an area of low pressure right over the country by the second half of next week. A second model is slightly more cautious in bringing the next low in after mid-week, but nonetheless doesn’t really leave room for any high pressure of significance. This all means that the weather influence is very limited during this coming week. No real signs of tropo, but possibly a little microwave bands rain scatter, although it’s not a very strong hint.

This mid-winter period can produce some out of season sporadic E, although it will be limited and fleeting. The best way forward is to monitor the clusters for signs of 10m activity, showing as short-skip signals from Europe.

The Geminids meteor shower is over now so while we wait for the next major one, the Quadrantids in January, it’s back to early morning sporadic meteors for our meteor scatter DX on the low VHF bands.

The Moon’s declination goes positive this Sunday and its orbit is bringing it closer all this week. Moon windows for EME will lengthen and losses decrease as the week progresses, so get active in next weekend’s 3.4GHz activity session.

Wolfgang Bueschel log

5130.458 USA  WBCQ English, at 0156 UT in remote SDR unit in Cape Canaveral,
         S=5 or -105dBm in FL US state.

To compare 4840 WWCR S=8-9, CUB Bauta Rebelde 5025 + RHC 5040 both S=9+10dB,
UTE digital block 4810.5-4813.3 kHz range, S=8-9 at 0158 UT on Dec 15.

6180even CUB  CRI Chinese from Quivican TITAN San Felipe site,
         S=9+30dB at 0202 UT on Dec 15.

CUB Bauta 6165 S=9+25, 6060 S=9+15dB, QUI 6000 S=9+25dB at 0207 UT

7494.997 USA  WBCQ English, S=6-7 fair signal at 0209 UT.

7505v NOTHING heard in 0155 to 0209 UT checks, but
7505.002 kHz on air at 0215 UT on Dec 15, S=9+20dB remote in FL US state.
Maybe frequency drift now supposedly upwards in coming hours ?

7314.996 USA  WHRI Cypress Creek, mx / singer progr, S=9+25dB at 0212 UT,
         10 kHz wideband audio block.

7355even USA  IBB Radio Marti Greenville Sp px, NO JAMMING,
         powerhouse S=9+35dB at 0217 UT, \\ 7435 kHz S=9+15dB

7385.003 USA  WHRI Cypress Creek, mx px, S=9+30dB in Florida SDR,
         10 kHz wideband audio block. 0220 UT.

7850even CAN  CHU Ottawa alignement check, 0225 UT on air, S=9 in FL / US.

and a lot of ROU RRI to mention, as well as BBC Oman too in 41 mb at this
hour.

[selected SDR options, span 12.5 kHz RBW 15.3 Hertz]
(wb  df5sx, wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Dec 15)

Agenda DX 15/12/2018

ANNIVERSARIO EMITTENTI
Radio Libertad Trujillo, Perù 4910 Khz (1951)
Radio Imagen, Perù 4970 Khz (1978)
Radio Caribe, Cuba 1310 Khz (1958)
Radio Progreso, Cuba 890 Khz (1929)
CBC Black Rock, Barbados 900 Khz (1963)
Radio Cristal, Uruguay 1470 Khz (1934)
La Cruz del Sur, Bolivia 4875 Khz (1949)
Radio Imagen Tarapoto, Perù 4970 Khz (1978)
Radio El Condor, Ecuador 1140 Khz (1946)
Radio Segovia, Spagna 1602 Khz (1934)
Radio Oberà, Argentina 1470 Khz (1963)

venerdì 14 dicembre 2018

W4HM Daily HF/MF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #2018-349

Greetings to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the
world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” daily W4HM Daily HF/MF Radio Wave Propagation
Forecast.

It’s the only accurate daily global HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast produced on the planet.

I'm a heliophysicist, terrestrial/troposphere meteorologist/climatologist, physical oceanographer and one of the few on the planet with advanced education and forecast experience in all aforementioned disciplines. In terrestrial/troposphere weather forecasting I have 45 years of experience and in solar, space and geomagnetic weather forecasting 34 years.

This is created and disseminated by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM in Lakeland, FL, USA © 1988-2018.

If you find this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your
hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me
know that at

thomasfgiella@gmail.com

I enjoy hearing from likeminded fellow radio enthusiasts.

Hams and SWLs that are interested in solar, space & geomagnetic weather as
well as radio wave propagation are a special group of people interested in
broadening their knowledge in science.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Supporting images associated with this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast can be found in my Facebook account at

https://www.facebook.com/thomasfranklingiellaw4hm

and in my Twitter account at

https://twitter.com/GiellaW4hm

Last but not least here is my new HF/MF radio wave propagation web page where you can sign up to receive this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast via email.

It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by Groups.io, so
you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a
password.

https://groups.io/g/w4hmradiowavepropagationforecast

>>>>>W4HM Solar Cycle 24 Update and Solar Cycle 25 Forecast- Short and to the point.

Solar minimum may begin later this year and may last longer than any previous solar cycle in the 20th century. When solar cycle 25 finally gets underway it could be the weakest since the middle of the 19th century. Another Dalton type lesser grand solar minimum may occur with a corresponding cooling of earth’s climate. This would negate anthropogenic climate change if it were occurring which it isn’t.

On February 1, 2008 I forecasted that solar cycle 24 would be the smallest solar cycle in the past 100 years. That forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be almost non nonexistent.<<<<<

#349 Issued Friday December 14, 2018 at 1600 UTC

Important Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Indices-

Solar activity was very low.

The daily solar flux index numbers (DSFI) were

70.6 70.2 70.6.

There had been 9 consecutive days with a 2000 UTC daily solar flux index number (SFI) of 70 or above.

The official daily sunspot number (DSSN) was 0.

There had been 2 consecutive days with an official sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

In 2018 there had been 206 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

There had been no earth facing sunspot group(s).

The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition of

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0.

The 24 hour period planetary A index (Ap) maximum and minimum values ranged between

10 & 1,

which had been at an unsettled to quiet geomagnetic condition.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum Disturbance Storm Time Index (Dst) ranged between

-7 & 0 nT.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed was 379 & 352 km/s.

>>>>>GLOBAL (HF) HIGH FREQUENCY (3000-30000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-<<<<<

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 14, 2018- steady.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 15, 2018- steady.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 16, 2018- minor deterioration.

Northern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast b-

>>>>>We are now in the winter season northern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.

The approximate 11000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes sooner due to less sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is higher than in the southern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and the ions more concentrated.

The approximately 3000-10000 kHz frequency range often stays open for DX all throughout the day due to a weaker D and E layer and therefore less RF signal absorption.<<<<<

Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9 +1 to 9 at night and S1-3 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+ 1 to 9 at night and S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S0 at night and S3-4 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,
28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.

Southern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the summer season southern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.

The 14000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes later due to more sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is lower than in the southern hemisphere as heating in the F2 layer of the ionosphere is higher and the layer ions less concentrated.

Almost daily during the northern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 25600- 26100 kHz and 28000-29700 kHz frequency ranges will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9+10 at night and S3-5 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+15 at night and
S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S1-3 at night and S5-8 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,

28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.

>>>>>GLOBAL (MF) MEDIUM FREQUENCY (300-3000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-<<<<<

FORECASTED NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi /1800 km

S9-+5

*North <-> South To 1100 Mi /1800 km

S9-+1

+South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km

S5-7


FORECASTED SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi / 1800 km

S9+5

*South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km

S9-+1

+North <-> South To 1100 Mi / 1800 km

S5-7


FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Northern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude

S5-7

Mid Latitude

S9+10

Low latitude

S4-6


FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Southern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude

S5-7
Mid Latitude

S9+5

Low latitude

S4-6



This HF/MF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF/MF radio wave propagation prediction software.
I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it still can’t
be distributed to the general public. It does outperform VOA CAP and PropLab.
I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary.

I also check global HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio
receivers on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if
and when necessary.

And last but not least I look at ionsonde stations on every continent of the
globe.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25
watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on
100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array
antenna.

The MF broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 50,000 watts (50 kw) and an omnidirectional vertical antenna.

Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable
by the average radio enthusiast.


>>>>>THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL ON SOLAR SPACE, GEOMAGNETIC WEATHER OBSERVING AND FORECASTING AS WELL AS GOINGS ON IN EARTH’S IONOSPHERE.<<<<<

Globally HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2). Also by propagation path.

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio.

Lower high frequency (80-30 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner not so much by variations in the maximum usable frequency
(MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to
geomagnetic elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms (Kp-5 &
greater) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the altitude of
the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D
layer RF signal absorption due to hard x-rays, galactic cosmic waves,
elevated background solar flux levels greater than B0 and energetic proton
flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

Higher frequency (20-10 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a
particular propagation path and time due to the current sunspot number and
also due to elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms of Kp-5 &
greater. Also D layer RF signal absorption due to elevated (greater than B0)
background solar flux levels. Also to a lesser extent elevated proton flux
at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

>>>>>GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-<<<<<

NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal
intellectual property. Therefore the HF radio wave propagation indices
interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2018 by Thomas F.
Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is
allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.

All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to
see the best global high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation possible,
something that happens only rarely.

1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.

2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.

3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation
of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days
consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer
than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days
consecutively, greater than C1 best.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign,
indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora
absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF
signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery
time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A
positive number is best.

>>>>>GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL MF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-<<<<<

Medium frequency (300-3000 khz) radio wave propagation conditions are impacted in a negative manner not by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to energetic electron flux levels at energies greater than 2 MeV (2+1), geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-3-4) and geomagnetic storms (Kp-5 & >) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the general altitude of the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D layer signal absorption due to elevated background solar flux levels greater than A0, proton flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0), hard x-rays and galactic cosmic rays.
There is also the issue of magneto ionic power coupling. Antenna polarization plays a large role in the success of a long haul MF DX contact. As a MF RF signal traverses Earth's magnetic lines of force in a perpendicular manner on high and mid latitude paths say between W3 land and SM, higher angle horizontally polarized signals are more readily absorbed than lower angle vertically polarized signals. On other propagation paths on the globe opposite results can be found, i.e., horizontally polarized signals suffer less absorption on a propagation path between VK6 and W6 or S9 and W4.
Unfortunately the simplest way to look at medium frequencies with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one maximum distance refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
All 13 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global medium frequency (MF) radio wave propagation possible.

The simplest way to look at medium frequencies (MF) with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.

1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.

2.) A daily sunspot number under 100, under 70 best.

3.) A daily sunspot number no higher then the 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic proton flux levels no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels of A0 for several days consecutively.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.

11.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.

12.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).

13. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.


Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF/MF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW
public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this
daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted ©
1988-2018 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF/MF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science and therefore also an art. The forecasts are not official but for
educational and hobby related purposes only and are subject to human error
and acts of God, therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.

Shortwave Radiogram, 14-16 December 2018: Transatlantic digital modes, no kite required for reception

Last weekend’s introduction of the Tecsun Radios Australia image decoding competition brought much new interest in Shortwave Radiogram. Good! And it brings advertising revenue to help WRMI defray the costs of shortwave broadcast transmission – and that helps keep shortwave alive.

More information about the competition at the Tecsun Radios Australia blog …


With digital text via shortwave broadcast, I especially enjoy perfect or near-perfect decodes of text in poor conditions, where voice broadcasts can be difficult to comprehend and images fuzzy. I experienced that last Saturday with the ASCII art transmitted by The Mighty KBC. However, I was not able to replicate the results from my wav file of that reception. Eventually, I tried closing Fldigi and restarting it, and that solved the problem. I recently received an email from John in Massachusetts who has noticed the same problem, and solution, with Fldigi. So if your decode is not satisfactory, try closing Fldigi and restarting it. Anyway, you can see, hear, and decode from my reception of KBC here.  

Videos of last weekend’s Shortwave Radiogram (program 77) are provided by Scott in Ontario (Friday 2030-2100 UTC) and Ralf in Germany (Saturday 1400-1430 UTC). The audio archive is maintained by Mark in the UK. Analysis is prepared by Roger in Germany (including audio of the Tecsun announcement).

Here is the lineup for Shortwave Radiogram, program 78, 14-16 December 2018, in MFSK modes as noted:

  1:34  MFSK32: Program preview
  2:43  Space walk to repair mysterious hole in the ISS*
  7:35  MFSK64: First transatlantic radio message, 1901 (maybe)*
13:15  This week’s images*
23:57  MFSK32: Message from Tecsun Radios Australia*
28:33  Closing announcements

* with image(s)

Please send reception reports to radiogram@verizon.net


Twitter: @SWRadiogram or https://twitter.com/swradiogram (visit during the weekend to see listeners’ results)


image
Slow Scan Radio transmits SSTV images and text modes Saturdays at 1300-1330 UTC on 6070 kHz (and maybe also 7440 kHz) via Channel 292 in Germany – although it may be off the air for a few weeks because of maintenance at Channel 292.  The website is http://www.slowscanradio.com. Reception reports to x@xdv.me.

The Mighty KBC transmits to Europe Saturdays at 1300-1400 UTC on 11600 kHz from Bulgaria, with the minute of MFSK at about 1330 UTC (if you are outside of Europe, listen via websdr.ewi.utwente.nl:8901/ ). And to North America Sundays at 0000-0200 UTC (Saturday 7-9 pm EST) on 5960 kHz, via Germany. The minute of MFSK is at about 0130 UTC.  Reports to Eric: themightykbc@gmail.com . See alsohttp://www.kbcradio.eu/ and https://www.facebook.com/TheMightyKbc/. 

Italian Broadcasting Corporation (IBC)  Five minutes of MFSK32 is at the end of the 30-minute English-language “Shortwave Panorama. For the complete IBC transmission schedule visit  http://ibcradio.webs.com/