mercoledì 19 dicembre 2018

Agenda DX 19/12/2018

ANNIVERSARIO EMITTENTI
Radio Lider, Perù 4945 Khz (1985)
Radio Rio Claro, Brasile (1980)

martedì 18 dicembre 2018

Glenn Hauser logs December 18, 2018

** CUBA. 6165, Dec 18 at 0654, this RHC is off, while English on 6100, 6060, 6000 and 5040 are still on. Quite the contrary, earlier at 0116, 6165 was on and 6000 was off. At 0712, only 6000 is still on with another hour of English, and also JBA on x 2 = 12000. Keeping 6000 on for the final hour until 0800 is getting to be a pattern. Something`s always wrong at RHC (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** CUBA. 15230, Dec 18 at 1510, no signal from RHC. Maybe operator looked at posted RHC website sked and realized, OMG, this frequency is supposed to be off?! But it`s on again at 1546 check. Something`s always wrong at RHC, but in this case, is it wrong to be off, or wrong to be on? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** NIGERIA. 7255-, Dec 18 at 0702, VON is missing; but at 0705 I find it on 9689.908 with talk in African language frequently mentioning Nigeria; just in time as this cuts off abruptly at 0706*, so in error? Still does not show up soon on 7255- (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** RUSSIA. 9996, Dec 18 at 0703, open carrier, fairly good signal. Hard to imagine anything but RWM here altho better than other European signals on band now; recheck at 0708 it`s off, a scheduled break? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** SOUTH CAROLINA [non]. 5130.40, Dec 18 at 0655, WBCQ is still on with Brother Scare; as feared, apparently replacing 9330+ for 24-hour disservice. (And 3215 WWCR TOMBS is off again after 0600). By daytime 1545 recheck, 9330 still missing and 5130.4 inaudible, but may be beaming into the absorption.

Wolfgang Bueschel reported: ``Log Dec 18 at 1235 to 1305 UT range in Edmonton Alberta remote SDR site: USA, 5130.384 kHz WBCQ wandered to .389 kHz variable, at 1235 UT Dec 18, S=9+25dB, two men talk in English. 7490v WBCQ channel nothing. 9330v WBCQ channel nothing`` 

Absence of 9330 reminds one to wonder how the Superpower project is coming along, registered to use this frequency only when it may start in a few more months (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** TURKEY. 11815.699, Dec 18 at 1541, TRT Turkish talk is running off-frequency today, usual good signal (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. WBCQ: See SOUTH CAROLINA [non]

** U S A. 5970, Dec 18 at 0652, WEWN song is barely modulated (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 7310-7315-7320, Tue Dec 18 at 0659, WINB DRM with VG signal of standard noise on the upper half, but multiple carriers beating against each other on the lower half, same as on 13685-13690-13695 in the 11-17 UT M-F tests, as heard Dec 18 at 1511. What *is* this abnormal non-DRM stuff on the bottom? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 5085, Dec 18 at 0714, WTWW with Xmasmx, distorted. I guess it runs all night; next check at 1502, still on with TedAd for MFJ (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

This report dispatched at 1849 UT December 18

Media & Tech - 18/12/2018

eQSL Radio Milano 1602


W4HM Daily HF-MF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #2018-353

Greetings to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the
world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” W4HM Daily HF/MF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast.

It’s the only accurate daily global HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast produced on the planet.

I'm a heliophysicist, terrestrial/troposphere meteorologist/climatologist, physical oceanographer and one of the few on the planet with advanced education and forecast experience in all aforementioned disciplines. In terrestrial/troposphere weather forecasting I have 45 years of experience and in solar, space and geomagnetic weather forecasting 34 years.

This is created and disseminated by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM in Lakeland, FL, USA © 1988-2018.

If you find this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your
hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me
know that at


I enjoy hearing from likeminded fellow radio enthusiasts.

Hams and SWLs that are interested in solar, space & geomagnetic weather as
well as radio wave propagation are a special group of people interested in
broadening their knowledge in science.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Supporting images associated with this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast can be found in my Facebook account at


and in my Twitter account at


Last but not least here is my new HF/MF radio wave propagation web page where you can sign up to receive this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast via email.

It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by Groups.io, so
you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a
password.


W4HM Solar Cycle 24 Update and Solar Cycle 25 Forecast- Short and to the point.

Solar minimum may begin later this year and may last longer than any previous solar cycle in the 20th century. When solar cycle 25 finally gets underway it could be the weakest since the middle of the 19th century. Another Dalton type lesser grand solar minimum may occur with a corresponding cooling of earth’s climate. This would negate anthropogenic climate change if it were occurring which it isn’t.

On February 1, 2008 I forecasted that solar cycle 24 would be the smallest solar cycle in the past 100 years. That forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be almost non nonexistent.

#353 Issued Tuesday December 18, 2018 at 1515 UTC
 
Important Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Indices-

Solar activity was very low.

The daily solar flux index numbers (DSFI) were

71.1 70.1 70.0

There had been 13 consecutive days with a 2000 UTC daily solar flux index number (SFI) of 70 or above.

The official daily sunspot number (DSSN) was 0.

There had been 2 consecutive days with an official sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

In 2018 there had been 208 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

There had been no earth facing sunspot group.

The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition of

0 1 2 1 1 1 2 2.

The 24 hour period planetary A index (Ap) maximum and minimum values ranged between

9 & 2,

which had been at an unsettled to quiet geomagnetic condition.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum Disturbance Storm Time Index (Dst) ranged between

-15 & +11 nT.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed was 411 & 310 km/s.

GLOBAL (HF) HIGH FREQUENCY (3000-30000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 18, 2018- improvement.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 19, 2018- steady.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 20, 2018- steady.

Northern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast b-

We are now in the winter season northern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.
The approximate 11000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes sooner due to less sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is higher than in the southern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and the ions more concentrated.
The approximately 3000-10000 kHz frequency range often stays open for DX all throughout the day due to a weaker D and E layer and therefore less RF signal absorption.
Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9 +1 to 9 at night and S1-3 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+ 1 to 9 at night and S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S0 at night and S3-4 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,


28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.

Southern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the summer season southern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.

The 14000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes later due to more sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is lower than in the southern hemisphere as heating in the F2 layer of the ionosphere is higher and the layer ions less concentrated.

Almost daily during the northern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 25600- 26100 kHz and 28000-29700 kHz frequency ranges will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9+10 at night and S3-5 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+15 at night and
S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S1-3 at night and S5-8 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,

28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.



GLOBAL (MF) MEDIUM FREQUENCY (300-3000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

FORECASTED NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+5
*North <-> South To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+1
+South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S5-7

FORECASTED SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-

-East <-> West To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S9+5
*South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+1
+North <-> South To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S5-7

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Northern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S5-7
Mid Latitude
S9+10
Low latitude
S4-6

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Southern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S5-7
Mid Latitude
S9+5
Low latitude
S4-6


This HF/MF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF/MF radio wave propagation prediction software.
I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it still can’t
be distributed to the general public. It does outperform VOA CAP and PropLab.
I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary.

I also check global HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio
receivers on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if
and when necessary.

And last but not least I look at ionsonde stations on every continent of the
globe.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25
watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on
100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array
antenna.

The MF broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 50,000 watts (50 kw) and an omnidirectional vertical antenna.

Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable
by the average radio enthusiast.

THE FOLLOWING IS EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL ON SOLAR, SPACE, GEOMAGNETIC WEATHER OBSERVING AND IONOSPHERE GOINGS ON. ALSO HF AND MF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS AND FORECASTING.
Globally HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2). Also by propagation path.

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio.

Lower high frequency (80-30 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner not so much by variations in the maximum usable frequency
(MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to
geomagnetic elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms (Kp-5 &
greater) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the altitude of
the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D
layer RF signal absorption due to hard x-rays, galactic cosmic waves,
elevated background solar flux levels greater than B0 and energetic proton
flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

Higher frequency (20-10 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a
particular propagation path and time due to the current sunspot number and
also due to elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms of Kp-5 &
greater. Also D layer RF signal absorption due to elevated (greater than B0)
background solar flux levels. Also to a lesser extent elevated proton flux
at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal
intellectual property. Therefore the HF radio wave propagation indices
interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2018 by Thomas F.
Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is
allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.

All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to
see the best global high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation possible,
something that happens only rarely.

1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.

2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.

3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation
of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days
consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer
than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days
consecutively, greater than C1 best.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign,
indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora
absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF
signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery
time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A
positive number is best.

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL MF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

Medium frequency (300-3000 khz) radio wave propagation conditions are impacted in a negative manner not by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to energetic electron flux levels at energies greater than 2 MeV (2+1), geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-3-4) and geomagnetic storms (Kp-5 & >) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the general altitude of the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D layer signal absorption due to elevated background solar flux levels greater than A0, proton flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0), hard x-rays and galactic cosmic rays.
There is also the issue of magneto ionic power coupling. Antenna polarization plays a large role in the success of a long haul MF DX contact. As a MF RF signal traverses Earth's magnetic lines of force in a perpendicular manner on high and mid latitude paths say between W3 land and SM, higher angle horizontally polarized signals are more readily absorbed than lower angle vertically polarized signals. On other propagation paths on the globe opposite results can be found, i.e., horizontally polarized signals suffer less absorption on a propagation path between VK6 and W6 or S9 and W4.
Unfortunately the simplest way to look at medium frequencies with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one maximum distance refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
All 13 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global medium frequency (MF) radio wave propagation possible.
The simplest way to look at medium frequencies (MF) with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.
2.) A daily sunspot number under 100, under 70 best.
3.) A daily sunspot number no higher then the 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism. 
 
4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best. 

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best. 

6.) Energetic proton flux levels no greater than 10 MeV (10+0). 

7.) Background x-ray flux levels of A0 for several days consecutively. 

8.) No current STRATWARM alert. 

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3. 

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.

11.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.
12.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).
13. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.
Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF/MF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW
public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this
daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted ©
1988-2018 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF/MF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science and therefore also an art. The forecasts are not official but for
educational and hobby related purposes only and are subject to human error

and acts of God, therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.

SWLDXBulgaria News, Dec.17-18

BANGLADESH   Reception of Bangladesh Betar in 31mb on Dec.17
1315-1345 on  9455 DKA 250 kW / 320 deg to SoAs Nepali, good
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-bangladesh-betar-in-31mb.html

BRASIL   Good signal of Radio Voz Missionaria in 49mb, Dec.18
from 0615 on  5939.6 CAB 0.5 kW / non-dir to BRA  Portuguese:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/good-signal-of-radio-voz-missionaria-in.html

CUBA   Reception of Radio Habana Cuba in 19 mb via Quivican on Dec.17
1405&1430 on 15140 QVC 250 kW / 130 deg to SoAm Spanish, fair signal:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-radio-habana-cuba-in-19-mb.html

CUBA   Radio Habana Cuba in English in 07-08UTC slot, Dec.18:
0700-0800 on  6000 QVC 250 kW / 010 deg to ENAm English, fair
No signal on other frequencies 6060, 6100 and 6165 via Bauta!
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/radio-habana-cuba-in-english-in-07.html

DENMARK   New station Radio OZ-Viola will make test transmission
from 2000 on  5825 unknown tx / unknown to WeEu Wednesday Dec.19
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/new-station-radio-oz-viola-will-make.html

EGYPT   Mystery Egyptian Music Station on 9600/9400 kHz, Dec.17
0905-0907 on  9600 unknown tx / unknown to ????, weak to fair
0907-0916 on  9400 unknown tx / unknown to ????, fair to good
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/mystery-egyptian-music-station-on.html

FRANCE(non)   Reception of Radio Nigeria Kaduna via TDF Issoudun, Dec.17
0700-0900 on 13840 ISS 150 kW / 170 deg to WeAf Hausa, very good signal,
0900-1100 on 17690 ISS 150 kW / 170 deg to WeAf Hausa, fair/good signal.
At same time 17690 KUN 500 kW / 150 deg to AUS  English CRI - NO SIGNAL!
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-radio-nigeria-kaduna-via.html

GERMANY   Good signal of DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst on Dec.17:
0600-0630 on  5905 PIN 010 kW / non-dir to CeEu German AM mode
0600-0630 on  6180 PIN 010 kW / non-dir to CeEu German AM mode
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/good-signal-of-dwd-deutscher_18.html

GERMANY(non)   BVBroadcasting Dardasha 7 via MBR Nauen, Dec.18
0600-0615 on  9440 NAU 125 kW / 180 deg to NoAf Arabic, fair:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-bvbroadcasting-dardasha-7.html

GUAM   Reception of FEBC/FEBA Radio in English via KTWR Asia on Dec.17:
1330-1345 on 11580 TWR 200 kW / 290 deg to SoAs English Mon, good signal
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-febcfeba-radio-in-english.html

GUINEA/KOREA D.P.R/SAUDI ARABIA   R.Guinée/VOKorea/R.Riyadh on 9650 kHz, Dec.17
0600-2400 on  9650 CON 050 kW / non-dir to WeAf French R.Guinée Conakry
0700-1250 on  9650 KUJ 200 kW / 109 deg to JPN  Japanese Voice of Korea
0850-1755 on  9650 RIY 100 kW / non-dir to N/ME Holy Quran Radio Riyadh
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/radio-guineevoice-of-korearadio-riyadh.html

KOREA D.P.R.   Good signal of KCBS Pyongyang on Dec.17
from 0800 on 11600 KNG 050 kW / non dir to NEAs Korean
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/good-signal-of-kcbs-pyongyang-on-dec17.html

KUWAIT   Reception of MOI Radio Kuwait General Service, Dec.17
0500-0900 on 15515.0 KBD 250 kW / 059 deg to EaAs Arabic, good
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-moi-radio-kuwait-general.html

KUWAIT   Very good signal of MOI Radio Kuwait in English in 25/19mb on Dec.17:
0500-0800 on 11969.8 KBD 250 kW / 100 deg to SoAs English AM, instead DRM mode
0500-0800 on 15529.7 KBD 250 kW / 310 deg to WeEu English AM as scheduled B-18
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/very-good-signal-of-moi-radio-kuwait-in.html

KUWAIT   Reception of MOI Radio Kuwait General Service in 49mb, Dec.18
till 0633 on  5959.8*KBD 250 kW / non-dir to N/ME Arabic, fair to good
*QRM co-ch on 5960.0 ASC 250 kW / 065 deg to WeAf Kanuri R.Ndrason Int
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-moi-radio-kuwait-general_18.html

OMAN   Radio Sultanate of Oman is again on air but only 10 mins, Dec.17
1400-1407 on 15140 THU 100 kW / 315 deg to WeEu tx is off - RHC is here
1407-1409 on 15140 THU 100 kW / 315 deg to WeEu open carrier / dead air
1409-1419 on 15140 THU 100 kW / 315 deg to WeEu English-distorted audio
from 1419 on 15140 THU 100 kW / 315 deg to WeEu tx is off - RHC is here
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/radio-sultanate-of-oman-is-again-on-air.html

NUMBERS STATION   Good signal of E11 Oblique in 25mb, Dec.17
0640-0643 on 11450 unknown secret tx site to Eu English USB:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/good-signal-of-e11-oblique-in-25mb-dec17.html

NUMBERS STATION   Good signal of Cuban Spy Numbers HM01 in 31mb, Dec.17
0655-0750 on  9330 secret tx probably BEJ 50 kW Spanish Sun/Mon/Wed/Fri
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/good-signal-of-cuban-spy-numbers-hm01.html

NUMBERS STATION   Good signal of S06s Russian Lady in 41mb, Dec.18:
0730-0736 on  7410 unknown secret tx site to Eu Russian USB/AM mode
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/good-signal-of-s06s-russian-lady-in_18.html

NUMBERS STATION   Fair signal of S06s Russian Lady in 25mb, Dec.18:
0800-0806 on 11945 unknown secret tx site to Eu Russian USB/AM mode
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/fair-signal-of-s06s-russian-lady-in.html

SAUDI ARABIA   Additional frequencies of BSKSA General Sce, Dec.17
0600-1200 on 13780 RIY 100 kW / non-dir to N/ME Arabic, weak/fair:
1200-1500 on 13785 RIY 100 kW / non-dir to N/ME Arabic
1500-1800 on  9790 RIY 100 kW / non-dir to N/ME Arabic
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/additional-frequencies-of-bsksa-general.html

SRI LANKA   Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation in 25mb, Dec.17:
1631-1830 on 11750.0 TRM 125 kW / 345 deg to N/ME Sinhala, good
1702-1801 on 11834.8 TRM 125 kW / 345 deg to SoAs Tamil, good
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-sri-lanka-broadcasting_18.html

SUDAN   Weak signal of Radio Omdurman Sudan on Dec.17:
from 0720 on  7205 ALF 100 kW / 210 deg to CeAf Arabic
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/weak-signal-of-radio-omdurman-sudan-on.html

TURKEY   TRT Voice of Turkey on very odd frequencies 15235.7 kHz on Dec.17
0600-0755 on 15235.7 EMR 500 kW / 210 deg to CEAf Hausa/Swahili, weak/fair
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/trt-voice-of-turkey-on-very-odd.html

U.K.(non)   Radio Ndrason International via BaBcoCk Ascension, Dec.17
0500-0700 on  5960 ASC 250 kW / 065 deg to WeAf Kanuri, fair to good:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/radio-ndrason-international-via-babcock.html

U.K.(non)   Radio Ndrason International via BaBcoCk Woofferton, Dec.17
0700-0800 on 13810 WOF 250 kW / 165 deg to WeAf Kanuri, strong signal:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/radio-ndrason-international-via-babcock_18.html

USA   Reception of WRNO Worldwide Radio in English on Dec.17:
from 0657 on  7505 RNO 050 kW / 020 deg to ENAm English, fair
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-wrno-worldwide-radio-in.html

USA   Reception of Supreme Master TV via WRMI-09 in Vietnamese, Dec.17
1355-1400 on 15770 YFR 100 kW / 087 deg to NCAf WRMI Interval Signal
1400-2000 on 15770 YFR 100 kW / 087 deg to NCAf English, good signal
from 1430 on 15770 YFR 100 kW / 087 deg to NCAf Vietnamese-fair/good
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-supreme-master-tv-via-wrmi_18.html

USA   Reception of WRNO Worldwide Radio in Chinese on Dec.18:
0603&0701 on  7505 RNO 050 kW / 020 deg to ENAm Chinese, fair
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/reception-of-wrno-worldwide-radio-in_18.html

USA   Reception of World Wide Christian Radio WWCR-2 University Network on Dec.18:
from 0637 on  5935 WCR 100 kW / 085 deg to CeAf English Dr.Gene Scott, good signal
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2018/12/world-wide-christian-radio-wwcr-2-relay.html

--

73! Ivo Ivanov
More information on the shortwave listening hobby,
please visit to http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com

QTH-1: Patreshko, Bulgaria
Receiver: Afedri SDR
Software: SDR-Console v2.3(using remote connection)
Antennas: various Inverted V and beverage antennas.

QTH-2: Sofia OK2, Bulgaria
Receiver: Sony ICF-2001D
Antenna: 30 m. long wire

Glenn Hauser logs December 16-17-18, 2018

** BRAZIL [and non]. 6180, Dec 18 at 0120, heavy collision has resumed between RNA in Brazuguese, and CRI English via CUBA, about equal levels making fast SAH, as RNA is off-frequency a bit. All are too set in their ways to resolve the conflict (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** CUBA. 14997 & 15283 approx., Dec 17 at 1515, the RHC JBA spurs are audible again today, plus/minus 143 kHz out of the 15140 transmitter (where BTW, Oman is reported reactivated but blocked by RHC here). Something`s always wrong at RHC, but no 13 MHz FM spurs today (Glenn Hauser, OK, WORLD OF RADIO 1961, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** CUBA. 6000, Dec 18 at 0116, no signal from RHC English, but undermodulated 6165 is running; and 6060 in Spanish. Something`s always wrong at RHC (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U K. 7445, Dec 18 at 0112, SW Asian music and talk, S9+10 to S8, not bad for BBC Woofferton beaming toward Afghanistan in Pashto; total service is 0030-0330 alternating Dari and Pashto, except the final semihour switches to Armenia site, why? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A [and non]. WORLD OF RADIO 1960 monitoring: confirmed Sunday December 16 at 2130 on WRMI 7780, VP. NOT at 2230 on 9955, as outdated listed by Observer. Confirmed UT Monday December 17 on WRMI 9395, S9/S9+10 and 5950 same metering but noisier. Confirmed on Area 51 webcast, UT Monday December 17 from 0402 and JBA on WBCQ 5130.44. Also confirmed UT Monday December 17 at 0430 on WRMI 9955, JBA with some pulse jamming, clear on webcast.

WORLD OF RADIO 1961 contents: Alaska, Australia, Cuba, Denmark, Eritrea non, France non, Germany and non, Guam, Hungary, India, Japan/Korea North non, Kuwait, México, Oman, Romania, Russia, Somalia/Kenya, Sudan, USA and non; and the propagation outlook

WOR 1961 ready for first airing UT Tuesday December 18 at 0030 on WRMI 7730, confirmed very good. Confirmed but JBA Tuesday December 18 at 0200 on WRMI 9955. Next:

2030 UT Tuesday   WRMI    7780 to NE
0930 UT Wednesday Unique  5045-LSB low-power NSW Australia
1030 UT Wednesday WRMI    5950 to WNW
2200 UT Wednesday WRMI    9955 to SSE
2200 UT Wednesday WBCQ    7490v to WSW
0930 UT Friday    Unique  5045-LSB low-power NSW Australia
0729 UT Saturday  HLR     6190-CUSB Germany to WSW
0930 UT Saturday  Unique  5045-LSB low-power NSW Australia [Dec 22]
1200 UT Saturday  Unique *9265 via WINB to WSW
1531 UT Saturday  HLR     9485-CUSB Germany to WSW
1700 UT Saturday  WRN    *5950 via WRMI to WNW [unconfirmed]
2030vUT Saturday  WA0RCR  1860-AM non-direxional
0400vUT Sunday    WA0RCR  1860-AM [nominal 0415], ND
0830 UT Sunday    WRMI    5850 to NW, 5950 to WNW, 7730 to WNW 
1130 UT Sunday    HLR     7265-CUSB Germany to WSW
2130 UT Sunday    WRMI    7780 to NE
0230 UT Monday    WRMI    5950 to WNW, 9395 to NNW
0400vUT Monday    WBCQ   *5130v Area 51 to WSW
0430 UT Monday    WRMI   *9955 to SSE
0930 UT Monday    Unique  5045-LSB low-power NSW Australia
* also webcast; direct linx to these and many others at:

Complete updated WOR sked, all affiliates, satellite, webcast, AM&FM:
http://www.worldofradio.com/radioskd.html
(Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. While WOR 1960 is running on WRMI 5950 & 9395, UT Mon Dec 17 at 0230, what`s on the other audibles? 7780 Viva Miami; 9955 Wavescan; 5850 // 7570 // 7730 Brother HyStairical (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 5130.4, Dec 17 at 0232, only this WBCQ is audible, VP, nothing on 7490+ or 9330+; both off or not propagating? At 0359 on Area 51 webcast, naughty Xmas carols on an old Radio TimTron Worldwide, mentioning now ex-frequencies 5110 and 7415, ending a bit late and right into WOR (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 7490.188v, Dec 18 at 0110, WBCQ with `From the Isle of Music`, mixed with Cuban interviews. Gone after 0200 (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 5130.4, Dec 18 at 0218, VP WBCQ with TOM, at first another voice, then BS himself, // same subject on 7570 WRMI, but far from synchronized. 9330 off or inaudible, so has WBCQ moved BS to 5130? Had been almost 24/7 on 9330, which 5130 may again become. WBCQ`s own program schedules remain woefully outdated, e.g. still showing WOR at 0030 daily on 9330 (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 5085, Dec 17 at 1513, WTWW-2 still on night frequency with a hard-sell ham equipment Tedad; during extended Xmasmx? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 15555-USB, Dec 17 at 1516, JBA talk so WJHR is here again today instead of 15550 (Glenn Hauser, OK, WORLD OF RADIO 1961, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 5935, Dec 18 at 0115, S9+20 of dead air from WWCR, finally resuming DGS at 0120 (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

This report dispatched at 0350 UT December 18

WBCQ Dec 18 - Wolfgang Bueschel

USA/FRANCE/KUWAIT  5130.401 unstable fq - variabel up to 5130.410 kHz, WBCQ only S=4-5 strength in FL US state remote unit at 0203 UT, but S=9+20 dB signal in Edmonton Alberta Canada remote SDR unit at 0227 UT on Dec 18.

7490v kHz WBCQ nothing around 0205 UT on Dec 18.

7495even kHz fq, IBB BBG VoA Kuwait al-Dschahra suburb, R Ashna program in Dari to AFG/IRN border etc. at 0215 UT.

US IBB BBG VoA / RL / RFA bcast center Kuwait relay site is  n o t  at Kabd location, rather 43 kilometers distance apart northerly at al-Dschahra suburb

29 30 45.59 N  47 40 17.84 E

<https:\\goo.gl/maps/mEfcyCVssEL2>

Report sent to:  <manager_kuwait [at] kuw.ibb.gov>

9330v kHz WBCQ nothing around 0224 UT on Dec 18.

9490even Radio Republica real clandestine program from Miami Cuban refugees and opposition emigrants, Spanish language speaking community to Cuba. At 0224 UT on Dec 18, WRMI FMO brokered, and sent out - back - to the Americas via TDF Issoudun broadcast center relay site in France. S=9+40dB proper signal at remote SDR in Alberta Canada.

[selected SDR options, span 12.5 kHz RBW 15.3 Hertz]
(wb  df5sx, wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Dec 18)

73 wb Wolfgang Bueschel
wwdxc

RTBF 621 kHz closing, a message on air

RTBF 621 kHz - Since this morning 0459z, the following message is broadcast at the end of each hour on 621 kHz: "À compter du 31 décembre, La Première va cesser d'émettre en ondes moyennes. Pour continuer à nous écouter, basculez votre récepteur radio en FM sur la fréquence de votre ville. Vous pouvez également nous écouter en direct en DAB+, via l'application radio player, ou sur auvio."

"From December the 31st, La Première will cease transmitting on the medium wave. In order to continue listening to us, switch your radio reciever to FM on your city's frequency. You can also listen to us live on DAB+, through radio player app, or auvio."

The message seems to be only broadcast on MW, as it is followed by the end of the advertisement. Curiously, the second sentence is (almost) the same as in Allouis's equivalent announcement in December 2016. 

I did not hear any such message on VivaCité (1125 kHz); neither did I find any information about the time of the last transmission, so I can only suppose that La Première will become silent at 1905z (20:5 local) as usual.

RTBF's website mentions the possibility to listen to RTBF international through Atlantic Bird 3 satellite, on C band, and the Africa beam. The replacement satellite will just have all programmes transferred over, but the footprints could change to narrower beams.

(via mediumave info)

Agenda DX 18/12/2018

ANNIVERSARIO EMITTENTI
Radio Tupa, Brasile 1130 Khz (1960)
Sistema de Emisoras Atalaya, Ecuador 680 Khz (1945)
S.O.D.R.E., Uruguay (1929)
WMTI, Morovis, Messico 1580 Khz (1981)
WMTI, Puerto Rico 1580 Khz (1981)
CBNM, Newfoundland, Canada 740 Khz (1969)
Emisora Atalaya, Ecuador 4795 Khz (1945)

lunedì 17 dicembre 2018

Media & Tech - 17/12/2018

Propagation outlook from Boulder

:Product: Weekly Highlights and Forecasts
:Issued: 2018 Dec 17 0139 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/content/subscription-services
#
#                Weekly Highlights and Forecasts
#
Highlights of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
10 - 16 December 2018

Solar activity was very low throughout the period. Region 2731 (N13,
L=023, class/area=Bxo/10 on 14 Dec) maintained sunspots for two days
before decaying to plage and produced an isolated B1 flare at
15/1353 UTC. No Earth-directed CMEs were observed this period.

No proton events were observed at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit reached
high levels each day this period.

Geomagnetic field activity was quiet to unsettled on 10-11 Dec with
quiet conditions observed throughout the remainder of the period.

Forecast of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity
17 December - 12 January 2019

Solar activity is expected to be very low throughout the outlook
period.

No proton events are expected at geosynchronous orbit.

The greater than 2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit is
expected to reach high levels on 08-12 Jan with moderate flux levels
expected on 17-21 Dec and 03-05 Jan. Normal levels are expected
throughout the remainder of the outlook period.

Geomagnetic field activity is expected to reach active levels on 29
Dec and 04 Jan due to CH HSS effects. Quiet to unsettled or
generally quiet conditions are expected throughout the remainder of
the outlook period.

:Product: 27-day Space Weather Outlook Table 27DO.txt
:Issued: 2018 Dec 17 0139 UTC
# Prepared by the US Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, Space Weather Prediction Center
# Product description and SWPC contact on the Web
# https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/content/subscription-services
#
#      27-day Space Weather Outlook Table
#                Issued 2018-12-17
#
#   UTC      Radio Flux   Planetary   Largest
#  Date       10.7 cm      A Index    Kp Index
2018 Dec 17      70           8          3
2018 Dec 18      70           5          2
2018 Dec 19      70           5          2
2018 Dec 20      70           5          2
2018 Dec 21      72           5          2
2018 Dec 22      72           5          2
2018 Dec 23      72           5          2
2018 Dec 24      72           5          2
2018 Dec 25      72           5          2
2018 Dec 26      72           5          2
2018 Dec 27      72           5          2
2018 Dec 28      72           8          3
2018 Dec 29      72          12          4
2018 Dec 30      72          10          3
2018 Dec 31      72           8          3
2019 Jan 01      72           5          2
2019 Jan 02      72           5          2
2019 Jan 03      72          10          3
2019 Jan 04      72          12          4
2019 Jan 05      70          10          3
2019 Jan 06      70          10          3
2019 Jan 07      70           8          3
2019 Jan 08      70           5          2
2019 Jan 09      70           5          2
2019 Jan 10      70           5          2
2019 Jan 11      70           5          2
2019 Jan 12      70           5          2
(SWPC via DXLD)

W4HM Daily HF & MF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #2018-352

 
Greetings to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the
world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” daily W4HM Daily HF/MF Radio Wave Propagation
Forecast.

It’s the only accurate daily global HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast produced on the planet.

I'm a heliophysicist, terrestrial/troposphere meteorologist/climatologist, physical oceanographer and one of the few on the planet with advanced education and forecast experience in all aforementioned disciplines. In terrestrial/troposphere weather forecasting I have 45 years of experience and in solar, space and geomagnetic weather forecasting 34 years.

This is created and disseminated by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM in Lakeland, FL, USA © 1988-2018.

If you find this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your
hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me
know that at


I enjoy hearing from likeminded fellow radio enthusiasts.

Hams and SWLs that are interested in solar, space & geomagnetic weather as
well as radio wave propagation are a special group of people interested in
broadening their knowledge in science.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Supporting images associated with this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast can be found in my Facebook account at


and in my Twitter account at


Last but not least here is my new HF/MF radio wave propagation web page where you can sign up to receive this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast via email.

It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by Groups.io, so
you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a
password.


W4HM Solar Cycle 24 Update and Solar Cycle 25 Forecast- Short and to the point.

Solar minimum may begin later this year and may last longer than any previous solar cycle in the 20th century. When solar cycle 25 finally gets underway it could be the weakest since the middle of the 19th century. Another Dalton type lesser grand solar minimum may occur with a corresponding cooling of earth’s climate. This would negate anthropogenic climate change if it were occurring which it isn’t.

On February 1, 2008 I forecasted that solar cycle 24 would be the smallest solar cycle in the past 100 years. That forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be almost non nonexistent.

#352 Issued Monday December 17, 2018 at 1615 UTC
 
Important Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Indices-

Solar activity was very low.

The daily solar flux index numbers (DSFI) were

70.0 70.0 70.7

There had been 12 consecutive days with a 2000 UTC daily solar flux index number (SFI) of 70 or above.

But SFI numbers in the low 70’s don’t do anything to increase ionization in the F/F2 layer.

The official daily sunspot number (DSSN) was 0.

There had been 2 consecutive days with an official sunspot number (DSSN) greater than 0.

In 2018 there had been 207 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

There had been no earth facing sunspot group.

The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition of

1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1.

The 24 hour period planetary A index (Ap) maximum and minimum values ranged between

4 & 1,

which had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum Disturbance Storm Time Index (Dst) ranged between

-2 & +25 nT.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed was 430 & 303 km/s.

GLOBAL (HF) HIGH FREQUENCY (3000-30000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 16, 2018- minor deterioration.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 17, 2018- steady.

HF/MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Dec 18, 2018- improvement.

Northern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast b-

We are now in the winter season northern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.
The approximate 11000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes sooner due to less sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is higher than in the southern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and the ions more concentrated.
The approximately 3000-10000 kHz frequency range often stays open for DX all throughout the day due to a weaker D and E layer and therefore less RF signal absorption.<<<<<
Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9 +1 to 9 at night and S1-3 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+ 1 to 9 at night and S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S0 at night and S3-4 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,

28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.

Southern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the summer season southern hemisphere HF/MF radio wave propagation season.

The 14000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes later due to more sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is lower than in the southern hemisphere as heating in the F2 layer of the ionosphere is higher and the layer ions less concentrated.

Almost daily during the northern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 25600- 26100 kHz and 28000-29700 kHz frequency ranges will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9+10 at night and S3-5 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+15 at night and
S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S1-3 at night and S5-8 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,

28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.



GLOBAL (MF) MEDIUM FREQUENCY (300-3000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

FORECASTED NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+5
*North <-> South To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+1
+South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S5-7

FORECASTED SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-

-East <-> West To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S9+5
*South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+1
+North <-> South To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S5-7

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Northern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S5-7
Mid Latitude
S9+10
Low latitude
S4-6

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Southern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S5-7
Mid Latitude
S9+5
Low latitude
S4-6


This HF/MF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF/MF radio wave propagation prediction software.
I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it still can’t
be distributed to the general public. It does outperform VOA CAP and PropLab.
I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary.

I also check global HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio
receivers on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if
and when necessary.

And last but not least I look at ionsonde stations on every continent of the
globe.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25
watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on
100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array
antenna.

The MF broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 50,000 watts (50 kw) and an omnidirectional vertical antenna.

Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable
by the average radio enthusiast.

THE FOLLOWING IS EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL ON SOLAR, SPACE, GEOMAGNETIC WEATHER OBSERVING AND IONOSPHERE GOINGS ON. ALSO HF AND MF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS AND FORECASTING.
Globally HF/MF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2). Also by propagation path.

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio.

Lower high frequency (80-30 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner not so much by variations in the maximum usable frequency
(MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to
geomagnetic elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms (Kp-5 &
greater) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the altitude of
the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D
layer RF signal absorption due to hard x-rays, galactic cosmic waves,
elevated background solar flux levels greater than B0 and energetic proton
flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

Higher frequency (20-10 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a
particular propagation path and time due to the current sunspot number and
also due to elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms of Kp-5 &
greater. Also D layer RF signal absorption due to elevated (greater than B0)
background solar flux levels. Also to a lesser extent elevated proton flux
at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal
intellectual property. Therefore the HF radio wave propagation indices
interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2018 by Thomas F.
Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is
allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.

All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to
see the best global high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation possible,
something that happens only rarely.

1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.

2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.

3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation
of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days
consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer
than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days
consecutively, greater than C1 best.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign,
indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora
absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF
signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery
time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A
positive number is best.

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL MF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

Medium frequency (300-3000 khz) radio wave propagation conditions are impacted in a negative manner not by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to energetic electron flux levels at energies greater than 2 MeV (2+1), geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-3-4) and geomagnetic storms (Kp-5 & >) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the general altitude of the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D layer signal absorption due to elevated background solar flux levels greater than A0, proton flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0), hard x-rays and galactic cosmic rays.
There is also the issue of magneto ionic power coupling. Antenna polarization plays a large role in the success of a long haul MF DX contact. As a MF RF signal traverses Earth's magnetic lines of force in a perpendicular manner on high and mid latitude paths say between W3 land and SM, higher angle horizontally polarized signals are more readily absorbed than lower angle vertically polarized signals. On other propagation paths on the globe opposite results can be found, i.e., horizontally polarized signals suffer less absorption on a propagation path between VK6 and W6 or S9 and W4.
Unfortunately the simplest way to look at medium frequencies with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one maximum distance refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
All 13 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global medium frequency (MF) radio wave propagation possible.
The simplest way to look at medium frequencies (MF) with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.
2.) A daily sunspot number under 100, under 70 best.
3.) A daily sunspot number no higher then the 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism. 
 
4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best. 

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best. 

6.) Energetic proton flux levels no greater than 10 MeV (10+0). 

7.) Background x-ray flux levels of A0 for several days consecutively. 

8.) No current STRATWARM alert. 

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3. 

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.

11.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.
12.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).
13. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.



Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF/MF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF/MF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW
public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this
daily HF/MF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted ©
1988-2018 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF/MF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science and therefore also an art. The forecasts are not official but for
educational and hobby related purposes only and are subject to human error
and acts of God, therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.