giovedì 31 gennaio 2019

Reintroduce shortwave to reach rural areas in Papua New Guinea

Top Stories
Reintroduce shortwave band to reach rural areas: Sungi

https://postcourier.com.pg/reintroduce-shortwave-band-reach-rural-areas-sungi/

Member for Nuku Joseph Sungi has called in the National Broadcasting Corporation to reintroduce the short wave band to reach the rural people.

January 31, 2019

BY ISAAC NICHOLAS

Member for Nuku Joseph Sungi has called in the National Broadcasting Corporation to reintroduce the short wave band to reach the rural people.

Mr Sungi in a series of questions to Minister for Communication and Information Technology Sam Basil said in the late 1980s, the NBC at the time through the provincial radio stations was using the shortwave band.

He said Radio Sandaun in West Sepik could reach districts like Nuku and parts of Telefomin but that was not the case anymore.

“Does the minister and the department have any plans to make sure that same service under short wave band can be replaced by a new one or improvement can be made so that provincial radio stations can be revived and broadcasted straight so that remote parts of PNG can use to get news and update on what is happening around the country?” Mr Sungi said.

Mr Basil, who is also responsible for Energy, said a lot of people in the rural areas were asking the same question because they could no longer have access to NBC radio.

“When I took over I was surprised that many radio stations that transmit on shortwave 1 and 2 but that had been done away with.” He said the frequency has been divided and given to other users like mobile companies to use.

“I have had discussions with the managing director of NBC and I told them that we want that service to return. We are now moving the system at NBC from analogue to digital so I asked them how we can fit in the short wave system when we do the migration.

“They came up with a few ideas. For some places like Bougainville shortwave is available.

“But I asked them how can we asked the shops to start selling shortwave 1 and 2 transistor radios that receive this wireless signal, a lot of shops are not selling, In places like Bougainville we want to import some radios to distribute so that they carry out the awareness.”

“We are now talking about bringing back these services and improvement.

“We will start in Port Moresby first and roll out to provinces, We are trying our very best to bring the service back because most of our people are in rural areas, A lot of our radio stations now invest into FM band which signals of often blocked by barriers like mountains that is why we want to bring back the shortwave band,” Mr Basil said (via Artie Bigley, OH, DXLD)

Media & Tech - 31/01/2019

W4HM Daily HF-MF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #2018-31

Greetings to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the
world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” W4HM Daily HF-MF Radio Wave Propagation
Forecast.

It’s the only accurate daily global HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast produced on the planet.

I'm a heliophysicist, terrestrial/troposphere meteorologist/climatologist, physical oceanographer and one of the few on the planet with advanced education and forecast experience in all aforementioned disciplines. In terrestrial/troposphere weather forecasting I have 45 years of experience and in solar, space and geomagnetic weather forecasting 34 years.

This is created and disseminated by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM in Lakeland, FL, USA © 1988-2019.

If you find this daily HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your
hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me
know that at


I enjoy hearing from likeminded fellow radio enthusiasts.

Hams and SWLs that are interested in solar, space & geomagnetic weather as
well as radio wave propagation are a special group of people interested in
broadening their knowledge in science.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF-MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

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Last but not least here is my new HF-MF radio wave propagation web page where you can sign up to receive this daily HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast via email.

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W4HM Solar Cycle 24 Update and Solar Cycle 25 Forecast- Short and to the point.

Solar minimum may begin later this year and may last longer than any previous solar cycle in the 20th century. When solar cycle 25 finally gets underway it could be the weakest since the middle of the 19th century. Another Dalton type lesser grand solar minimum may occur with a corresponding cooling of earth’s climate. This would negate anthropogenic climate change if it were occurring which it isn’t.

On February 1, 2008 I forecasted that solar cycle 24 would be the smallest solar cycle in the past 100 years. That forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be almost non nonexistent.

#31 issued Thursday January 31, 2019 at 1745 UTC
 
Important Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Indices-

Solar activity was low.

The daily solar flux index numbers (DSFI) were

73.2 73.5 74.3.

There had been 10 consecutive days with a 2000 UTC daily solar flux index number (SFI) of 70 or above.

In general a SFI of less than 70 for an extended period of time is a signal that a solar cycle is at minimum.

The official daily sunspot number (DSSN) was 12.

The unofficial daily sunspot number (DSSN) was 0.

There had been 9 consecutive days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) above 0.

In 2019 there had been 15 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

In 2018 there had been 221 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

One sunspot group #12733 had set around the west limb of the sun.

No earth directed (geo effective) small C class or larger solar flares occurred

The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at an unsettled to quiet geomagnetic condition of

0 1 1 1 0 1 1 3.

The 24 hour period planetary A index (Ap) maximum and minimum values ranged between

7 & 0,

which had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum Disturbance Storm Time Index (Dst) ranged between

-9 & 25 nT.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed was

460 & 301 km/s.

No earth directed (geo effective) coronal mass ejection (CME) was observed in available coronagraph imagery.

Very large coronal hole (CH) #905 (#902) became (earth facing) geoeffective. Last time around as #902 it created minor (Kp-5, Ap-48) geomagnetic storming.

GLOBAL (HF) HIGH FREQUENCY (3000-30000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

HF-MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Jan 31, 2019- minor deterioration.

HF-MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Feb 1, 2019- steady.

HF-MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Feb 2, 2019- improvement.

Northern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the winter season northern hemisphere HF-MF radio wave propagation season.
The approximate 11000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes sooner due to less sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is higher than in the southern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and the ions more concentrated.
The approximately 3000-10000 kHz frequency range often stays open for DX all throughout the day due to a weaker D and E layer and therefore less RF signal absorption.
Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9 +1 to 9 at night and S1-3 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+ 1 to 9 at night and
S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S0 at night and S3-4 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,
28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.

Southern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the summer season southern hemisphere HF-MF radio wave propagation season.

The 14000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes later due to more sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is lower than in the southern hemisphere as heating in the F2 layer of the ionosphere is higher and the layer ions less concentrated.

Almost daily during the northern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 25600- 26100 kHz and 28000-29700 kHz frequency ranges will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9+10 at night and S3-5 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+15 at night and
S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S1-3 at night and S5-8 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,

28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.


GLOBAL (MF) MEDIUM FREQUENCY (300-3000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

FORECASTED NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+5-10
*North <-> South To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S7-8
+South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S5-6

FORECASTED SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S9
*South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S7-8
+North <-> South To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S5-6

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Northern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S7-8
Mid Latitude
S9+5-10
Low latitude
S9-+1

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Southern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S2-3
Mid Latitude
S6-7
Low latitude
S4-5


This HF-MF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF-MF radio wave propagation prediction software.
I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it still can’t be distributed to the general public. It does outperform VOA CAP and Prop Lab.
I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary.

I also check global HF-MF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio
receivers on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if
and when necessary.

And last but not least I look at ionsonde stations on every continent of the
globe.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25
watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on
100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array
antenna.

The MF broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 50,000 watts (50 kw) and an omnidirectional vertical antenna.

Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF-MF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable
by the average radio enthusiast.

THE FOLLOWING IS EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL ON SOLAR, SPACE, GEOMAGNETIC WEATHER OBSERVING AND IONOSPHERE GOINGS ON. ALSO HF AND MF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS AND FORECASTING.
Globally HF-MF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2). Also by propagation path.

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio.

Lower high frequency (80-30 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner not so much by variations in the maximum usable frequency
(MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to
geomagnetic elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms (Kp-5 &
greater) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the altitude of
the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D
layer RF signal absorption due to hard x-rays, galactic cosmic waves,
elevated background solar flux levels greater than B0 and energetic proton
flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

Higher frequency (20-10 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a
particular propagation path and time due to the current sunspot number and
also due to elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms of Kp-5 &
greater. Also D layer RF signal absorption due to elevated (greater than B0)
background solar flux levels. Also to a lesser extent elevated proton flux
at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal
intellectual property. Therefore the HF-MF radio wave propagation indices
interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2019 by Thomas F.
Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is
allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.

All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to
see the best global high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation possible,
something that happens only rarely.

1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.

2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.

3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation
of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days
consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer
than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days
consecutively, greater than C1 best.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign,
indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora
absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF
signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery
time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A
positive number is best.

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL MF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

Medium frequency (300-3000 khz) radio wave propagation conditions are impacted in a negative manner not by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to energetic electron flux levels at energies greater than 2 MeV (2+1), geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-3-4) and geomagnetic storms (Kp-5 & >) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the general altitude of the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D layer signal absorption due to elevated background solar flux levels greater than A0, proton flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0), hard x-rays and galactic cosmic rays.
There is also the issue of magneto ionic power coupling. Antenna polarization plays a large role in the success of a long haul MF DX contact. As a MF RF signal traverses Earth's magnetic lines of force in a perpendicular manner on high and mid latitude paths say between W3 land and SM, higher angle horizontally polarized signals are more readily absorbed than lower angle vertically polarized signals. On other propagation paths on the globe opposite results can be found, i.e., horizontally polarized signals suffer less absorption on a propagation path between VK6 and W6 or S9 and W4.
Unfortunately the simplest way to look at medium frequencies with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one maximum distance refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
All 13 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global medium frequency (MF) radio wave propagation possible.
The simplest way to look at medium frequencies (MF) with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.
2.) A daily sunspot number under 100, under 70 best.
3.) A daily sunspot number no higher then the 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic proton flux levels no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels of A0 for several days consecutively.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.
11.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.
12.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).
13. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.

Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF-MF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF/MF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW
public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this
daily HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted ©
1988-2019 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF-MF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science and therefore also an art. The forecasts are not official but for
educational and hobby related purposes only and are subject to human error

and acts of God, therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.

Glenn Hauser logs January 30-31, 2019

** SPAIN. 9690, Wed Jan 30 at 2307, REE in English with Justin Coe introducing C&W music by Chisholm group (like from around here?), and song by Merle Haggard. OK, but WHAT has this got to do with Spain? With only one sesquihour of English per week, REE ought to cram it with 100% all-Spain content! Even if it`s a lot of music requiring little original produxion. By 0100 Jan 31 recheck, 9690 has faded to JBA carrier, so never mind what may follow in the next bihour (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. WORLD OF RADIO 1967 monitoring: confirmed Wednesday January 30 at 2200 on WRMI 9955, upcut opening from ``--67``, only S4-S5; and about 3 seconds later on WBCQ 7490.19 much better at S9+10/20 and not distorted this week.

(By 2228 recheck, WRMI with pulse jamming; 2230 Wavescan 518 starting with future of Tinian station --- except part I only introduces the geography and storm. At 2229 WBCQ plays a minute of Andean music -- quena & drumming, 2230 over to deceased Goddess Irena, and now the modulation is distorted as no doubt from her original amateur recording; soon singing ``Till There Was You``) 

Next WOR at 0100 UT Thu Jan 31 on WRMI 7780: JBA carrier but probably me. Nexpected Worlds of Radios:

0930 UT Friday    Unique  5045-LSB NSW ND
0729 UT Saturday  HLR     6190-CUSB Germany to WSW
1200 UT Saturday  Unique  5045-LSB NSW ND [alt weeks: Feb 2 & 16]
1230 UT Saturday  WRMI   *9955 to SSE
1531 UT Saturday  HLR     9485-CUSB Germany to WSW
2030vUT Saturday  WA0RCR  1860-AM MO non-direxional
2200 UT Saturday  WRMI   *9955 to SSE
0400vUT Sunday    WA0RCR  1860-AM [nominal 0415], ND
0830 UT Sunday    WRMI    5850 to NW, 5950 to WNW, 7730 to WNW 
1130 UT Sunday    HLR     7265-CUSB Germany to WSW
2130 UT Sunday    WRMI    7780 to NE
0230 UT Monday    WRMI    5950 to WNW, 9395 to NNW
0400vUT Monday    WBCQ   *5130v Area 51 to WSW
0430 UT Monday    WRMI   *9955 to SSE
0930 UT Monday    Unique  5045-LSB NSW ND
2330 UT Monday    WRMI   *9955 to SSE [or #1968]
* also webcast; direct linx to these and many others at:

Complete WOR sked, all affiliates, satellite, webcast, AM&FM, podcast:
http://www.worldofradio.com/radioskd.html
(Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A [and non]. MW Bandscan on caradio from somewhat quiet parking lot in western Enid, Jan 20 from 2015 UT:

670, WSCR in well already with sports talk atop KLTT Denver groundwave

Other low-end channels with mostly JBA understations, presumed
660, Metroplex over Omaha, 
620, Metroplex over Sioux City; or Jackson MS?
590, Omaha over Austin
580, Topeka over Lubbock
570, Metroplex over Yankton (as always)
560, two very weak: Springfield & Denver?
550, Salina over Midland
540, Metroplex over Fort Dodge (as always)

710, Amarillo & Kansas City (as always), also het! Chihuahua?
720, WGN also in sports talk, skywave already
840, fast SAH, West Point & Louisville?

860, at 2017 UT, KKOW Pittsburg KS is off! Recheck 2039 back on with ``860 AM KKOW`` ID twice

1050, at 2018 UT, ``All New Heart & Soul, ##.1 and 1050``, which makes it KGTO Tulsa with 99.1 translator K256CR, while the *other* OK on 1050 is also ``Heart & Soul``, but its FM is 93.7 K239DG, i.e. KXCA Lawton, which barely makes a SAH on the ND caradio antenna. KXCA is 250 watts direxional away from Tulsa, while KGTO is 1 kW ND, and about 20 miles closer. Despite identical slogans, NRC AM Log shows different formats: KGTO UC:AC/OLD, and KXCA merely UC:AC

1130, at 2019 UT, NO signal from unreliable KLEY Wellington KS, unlike neighbors in OK on 1120, 1140, KS on 1150. However, local noise peak around here

1210, at 2041 UT, KGYN Guymon OK, JBA talk, much weaker on groundwave than normal, so maybe on night pattern direxional west, just like sometimes at night obviously on ND day pattern

1520, at 2022 UT, KOKC has constant JBA ~1 kHz het, from 1521? Saudi? Hard to believe as previously discussed, but 2 megawatts! At home on R75 by 2225, unheard. Supposedly closes circa 2230. Or some domestic consistently off-frequency? Or a local-area spur like 1640 around 595?

1540, at 2025 UT, English talkshow echoing from two different stations: KXEL IA has Dave Ramsey, and so does the nearest, KNGL McPherson KS. No Spanish ESPND yet from KZMP Metroplex as expected; after a break, echoing resumes at 2035

1650, circa 2030 UT cannot detect KFSW Sallisaw OK, despite further X-banders audible now, 1660 KWOD KC and 1700 KKLF Metroplex. All supposed to be 10 kW ND --- except KKLF is really only 5 kW even with better signal. 1650 does have splash from local KZLS, but even at home on R75 with USB tuning I do not hear KFSW, day; or night when KZLS ACI is not a problem. Why must OK`s only X-band stations be on adjacent frequencies? (Some DXers like to believe 1650 is in Arkansas, Fort Smith.) Iowa`s wound up 20 kHz apart.

Sometime I did hear a bit of praise music on 1650, which could be KFSW in REL:CHR format (unless it was Denver in Spanish), but I cannot believe KFSW is anywhere near nominal 10/1 kW U1 as licensed. You may recall that in its previous incarnation KWHN/KYHN, it was hard not to get here at night, suspected 10 kW then (Glenn Hauser, Enid OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST) 

This report dispatched at 0445 UT January 31

Some logs of Thursday Jan 31

MADAGASCAR  5009.933 kHz. Seldom heard low power domestic station
R. Madagasikara, Antananarivo. At 0244 UT on Jan 31, on remote units
at MA, NJ US states, and Edmonton Alberta SDR's,
poor S=5 or -91dBm fluttery signal, nice music program.


Noted on remote SDR stns in Hiroshima and Tokyo Japan:

GUAM  17880.17 kHz AWR KSDA Agat Guam, Mandarin Chinese sce 0000-0100 UT
S=9+15dB at 00.58 UT, close-down 00.59:50 UT, Jan 31.

17650.011 kHz AWR KSDA Agat Guam, Amoy service, 0103 UT on Jan 31,
S=9+10dB in Japan. 10 kHz wideband signal audio.


CHINA  17800DRM mode CNR Qiqihar north-eastern China, S=7-8 in Japan,
at 0101 UT on Jan 31, 10 kHz wideband digital signal.

15250DRM mode CNR Kunming site. S=8-9 in Hiroshima Japan remote SDR.
10 kHz wide digital signal at 0107 UT on Jan 31.

15710even CNR6 Beijing #491 station, Amoy language domestic sce,
nice easy listening Chinese soft pop music singer by female presenter.
0110 UT on Jan 31, S=9+15dB in Tokyo Japan.

15580DRM mode CNR Dongfang Island, 10 kHz digital wideband block,
S=7 signal strength in Hiroshima Japan. 0112 UT.

15570even  CNR11 Baoji domestic Tibetan sce, at 0114 UT on Jan 31, S=7
female talk presenter.

15540even  CNR2 national program from Lingshi site, S=5-6 poor at 0117 UT
\\ CNR2 15500 kHz Beijing at S=9+20dB.

15390even  CNR13 domestic sce from Lingshi site, Uyghur language sce,
S=5-6 at 0120 UT.

13655even strongest 22 meterband station at 0128 UT on Jan 31
CRI Chinese sce from Xian station site. S=9+35dB in Japan.
20 kHz wideband audio, excellent audio quality.

13825DRM mode CNR Beijing, S=8-9 at 0133 UT in Hiroshima Japan.

13850DRM mode CNR Urumqi relay from northwestern China, S=8-9 at 0135 UT.

11695DRM mode CNR Dongfang Island, 10 kHz digital wideband block,
S=9+20dB signal strength in Hiroshima Japan. 0214 UT on Jan 31.


JAPAN   13989 kHz Utility JMH F3C mode station, S=8 at 0145 UT.


PHILIPPINES   15560even  FEBC Bocaue, Javanese Indonesian program,
talk by men, sermon?, S=7-8 at 0115 UT on Jan 31.


TAIWAN/CHINA mainland  15340.215 kHz odd fq  SOH Taiwan underground stn,
Chinese sce at 0121 UT S=4-5 poor signal heard in Hiroshima Japan
remote SDR installation.

13530.222 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, S=9+15dB at 0124 UT on Jan 31.

13640.070 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, distorted audio quality S=8 0126 UT

13680.191 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, male voice discussion, S=9+5dB 0130UT

13870even CNR1 mainland jamming, and 13870.241 odd fq SOH Taiwan in Mandarin
S=9+10dB at 0136 UT on Jan 31.

13890even CNR1 mainland jamming, and 13889.807 odd fq SOH Taiwan in Mandarin
S=9+10dB at 0138 UT on Jan 31.

13920.031 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, S=9+10dB 0138 UT.

13980even CNR1 mainland jamming, and 13979.839 odd fq SOH Taiwan in Mandarin
S=9+5dB at 0141 UT on Jan 31.

11100.004 kHz CNR1 mainland jamming, S=9+20dB at 0148 UT, 16.4 kHz wideband.

11150even kHz CNR1 mainland jamming, S=9+15dB at 0152 UT, 8 kHz wide signal.

11160.083 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=6 at 0153 UT.

11409.970 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=8+ at 0157 UT.

11430.927 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=7 at 0156 UT.
11440even kHz CNR1 mainland jamming, S=9+15dB at 0155 UT, 8 kHz wide signal.

11459.860 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=6 at 0207 UT.
11460.009 kHz CNR1 mainland jamming, S=9+25dB at 0157 UT,
16 kHz wideband audio signal.

11499.925 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=6 at 0209 UT.
11500even kHz CNR1 mainland jamming, S=9+20dB at 0158 UT,
16 kHz wide signal. close-down at exact 0200 UT.

11580.128 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=6 at 0210 UT.

11599.996 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=6 at 0211 UT.
11600even kHz CNR1 mainland jamming, S=9+20dB start late at 0211 UT,
16 kHz wide signal.

11715.132 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=5 at 0216 UT.

11774.981 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=8-9 at 0218 UT.
11775even kHz CNR1 mainland jamming, S=9 at 0219 UT.

11969.997 odd fq  SOH Taiwan program, Chinese language, S=8-9 at 0221 UT.


THAILAND  13745.008 odd fq Radio Thailand in national Thai language
at 01-02 UT, S=9+25dB strength into Japan SDR unit, 0132 UT on Jan 31,
via Udorn Thani US IBB BBG relay site on Thailand northeastern province
soil.

[selected SDR options, span 12.5 kHz RBW 15.3 Hertz]
(wb  df5sx, wwdxc BC-DX TopNews Jan 31)

Agenda DX 31/01/2019

ANNIVERSARIO EMITTENTI
Akaki Radio Station, Addis Abeba, Etiopia (1935)
CKLG, British Col., Canada 730 Khz (1955)
Radio Diario de Manha, Florianopolis, Brasile 740 Khz (1955)
Radio Nacional del Perù 6095 Khz (1937)
Radio Sargento Cabral, Argentina (1953)

mercoledì 30 gennaio 2019

La radio... da Marconi a Geloso


SWLDXBulgaria News Jan.30

CHINA   New frequency for DRM transmission of China National Radio:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/new-frequency-for-drm-transmission-of.html

FRANCE(non)   Eye Radio recovers morning transmission on shortwave from Feb.4:
0400-0500 NF  7340 ISS 250 kW / 139 deg to EaAf Juba Arabic* Mon-Fri, ex 11620
1600-1700 on 15410 ISS 250 kW / 139 deg to EaAf Juba Arabic* Mon-Fri unchanged
*including other languages: English; Dinka; Nuer; Shilluk; Bari; Zande; Lutoho
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/eye-radio-recovers-morning-transmission.html

FRANCE(non)   Radio Nigeria Kaduna via TDF Issoudun in 31mb, Jan.30
0500-0700 on  7335 ISS 150 kW / 170 deg to WeAf Hausa, good signal:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/reception-of-radio-nigeria-kaduna-via_30.html

GERMANY   Fair signal of DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst on Jan.30:
0600-0630 on  5905 PIN 010 kW / non-dir to CeEu German AM mode
0600-0630 on  6180 PIN 010 kW / non-dir to CeEu German AM mode
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/fair-signal-of-dwd-deutscher_30.html

GERMANY(non)   BVBroadcasting Dardasha 7 via MBR Nauen, Jan.30
0600-0615 on  9440 NAU 125 kW / 180 deg to NoAf Arabic, good:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/reception-of-bvbroadcasting-dardasha-7_30.html

GREECE   Reception of Voice of Greece on 9420 kHz, Jan.30:
0751&0811 on  9420 AVL 150 kW / 323 deg to WeEu Greek*tx#3
*Arabic/Serbian nx & the transmitter switches off at 0820UT
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/reception-of-voice-of-greece-on-9420_30.html

KUWAIT   Good signal of MOI Radio Kuwait in English, Jan.30
0500-0800 on 15529.7 KBD 250 kW / 310 deg to WeEu English &
0800-0805 on 15529.7 KBD 250 kW / 310 deg Farsi unscheduled
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/good-signal-of-moi-radio-kuwait-in.html

NUMBERS STATION   Good signal of E11 Oblique in 26mb, Jan.30
0640-0650 on 11450 unknown secret tx site to Eu English USB:
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/good-signal-of-e11-oblique-in-26mb-jan30.html

NUMBERS STATION   Reception of S06s Russian Lady in 32mb on Jan.30:
Again with new format of broadcast: 4 minutes, instead of 6 minutes
0829-0833 on  9262 unknown secret tx site to Eu Russian USB+AM, good
https://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com/2019/01/reception-of-s06s-russian-lady-in-32mb.html


--

73! Ivo Ivanov
More information on the shortwave listening hobby,
please visit to http://swldxbulgaria.blogspot.com

QTH-1: Patreshko, Bulgaria
Receiver: Afedri SDR
Software: SDR-Console v2.3(using remote connection)
Antennas: various Inverted V and beverage antennas.

QTH-2: Sofia OK2, Bulgaria
Receiver: Sony ICF-2001D
Antenna: 30 m. long wire

Media & Tech - 30/01/2019

Glenn Hauser logs January 29-30, 2019

** ARGENTINA. 6934.81, Jan 29 at 2356, S3-S4 of rock music, better with ECSS, continues past 2400+ Jan 30 up to S6-S7. Argentine pirate has long been reported unID, even in North America, but some captures at same time on ``6934.9`` now include fuzzy SSTV IDs as AD149 Radio: https://www.hfunderground.com/board/index.php/topic,50561.0.html

Not clear on what basis this be put in Argentina; but it activates the country on SWBC in absence of RAE. (BTW how are their fuzzy plans going to refurbish/replace their own transmitter?) Nothing heard on 5825 from Chile`s pirate R. Triunfal Evangélica; both recently reported around this hour by Claudio Galaz, Chile (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** CHINA. 11875, Jan 30 at 0708, JBA carrier on almost deadband, even weaker than 11855.7 Brasil; HFCC shows it must be CRI Chinese via Nanning, this hour only, 100 kW at 200 degrees (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** CUBA. 14796.740, Jan 30 at 1432, RHC spur out of 15140, JBA. I have been tracking them downward, finding them as usual every 28.6 kHz or so. Odd that their relative JBA strength varies, not progressively weaker, with some outstanding. This one is *twelfth order*, i.e. 12 x 28.605 below 15140.000. Something`s always wrong at RHC (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** NIGERIA. 7255-, Jan 30 at 0704, VON is on again; undermodulated but sufficient on S9+20 bigsig (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. WORLD OF RADIO 1967 monitoring: confirmed Tuesday January 29 
at 2030 on WRMI 7780, poor. Next:
2200 UT Wednesday WRMI   *9955 to SSE 
2200 UT Wednesday WBCQ   *7490v to WSW
0100 UT Thursday  WRMI    7780 to NE
0930 UT Friday    Unique  5045-LSB NSW ND
0729 UT Saturday  HLR     6190-CUSB Germany to WSW
1200 UT Saturday  Unique  5045-LSB NSW ND [alt weeks: Feb 2 & 16]
1230 UT Saturday  WRMI   *9955 to SSE
1531 UT Saturday  HLR     9485-CUSB Germany to WSW
2030vUT Saturday  WA0RCR  1860-AM MO non-direxional
2200 UT Saturday  WRMI   *9955 to SSE
0400vUT Sunday    WA0RCR  1860-AM [nominal 0415], ND
0830 UT Sunday    WRMI    5850 to NW, 5950 to WNW, 7730 to WNW 
1130 UT Sunday    HLR     7265-CUSB Germany to WSW
2130 UT Sunday    WRMI    7780 to NE
0230 UT Monday    WRMI    5950 to WNW, 9395 to NNW
0400vUT Monday    WBCQ   *5130v Area 51 to WSW
0430 UT Monday    WRMI   *9955 to SSE
0930 UT Monday    Unique  5045-LSB NSW ND
2330 UT Monday    WRMI   *9955 to SSE [or #1968]
* also webcast; direct linx to these and many others at:

Complete WOR sked, all affiliates, satellite, webcast, AM&FM, podcast:
http://www.worldofradio.com/radioskd.html
(Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

** U S A. 9475-, Jan 30 as late as 1512, no signal from WTWW-1 day frequency; instead, 5830- night frequency is still running with SFAW. But 5085, WTWW-2 is also still on and much stronger S9+20/30 with rock music, which means it`s probably been active all night and will continue all day. What would PPPP say if he knew his legacy would be this off-topic, even multi-ethnic/amoral service? (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST)

This report dispatched at 1703 UT January 30

W4HM Daily HF-MF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast #2019-01-30

Greetings to my fellow hamateur radio and SWL radio enthusiasts around the
world.

Welcome to my “not for profit” W4HM Daily HF-MF Radio Wave Propagation
Forecast.

It’s the only accurate daily global HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast produced on the planet.

I'm a heliophysicist, terrestrial/troposphere meteorologist/climatologist, physical oceanographer and one of the few on the planet with advanced education and forecast experience in all aforementioned disciplines. In terrestrial/troposphere weather forecasting I have 45 years of experience and in solar, space and geomagnetic weather forecasting 34 years.

This is created and disseminated by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM in Lakeland, FL, USA © 1988-2019.

If you find this daily HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast useful to your
hamateur and SWL radio activities, feel free to drop me a line and let me
know that at


I enjoy hearing from likeminded fellow radio enthusiasts.

Hams and SWLs that are interested in solar, space & geomagnetic weather as
well as radio wave propagation are a special group of people interested in
broadening their knowledge in science.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF-MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Supporting images associated with this daily HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast can be found in my Facebook account at


and in my Twitter account at


Last but not least here is my new HF-MF radio wave propagation web page where you can sign up to receive this daily HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast via email.

It's a NO SPAM voluntary "opt" in email type group hosted by Groups.io, so
you have to sign up by using an existing email address and creating a
password.


W4HM Solar Cycle 24 Update and Solar Cycle 25 Forecast- Short and to the point.

Solar minimum may begin later this year and may last longer than any previous solar cycle in the 20th century. When solar cycle 25 finally gets underway it could be the weakest since the middle of the 19th century. Another Dalton type lesser grand solar minimum may occur with a corresponding cooling of earth’s climate. This would negate anthropogenic climate change if it were occurring which it isn’t.

On February 1, 2008 I forecasted that solar cycle 24 would be the smallest solar cycle in the past 100 years. That forecast verified. I also forecasted that solar cycle 25 would be almost non nonexistent.

#30 issued Wednesday January 30, 2019 at 1600 UTC
 
Important Solar, Space & Geomagnetic Weather Indices-

Solar activity was low.

The daily solar flux index numbers (DSFI) were

72.9 73.1 75.4.

There had been 9 consecutive days with a 2000 UTC daily solar flux index number (SFI) of 70 or above.

In general a SFI of less than 70 for an extended period of time is a signal that a solar cycle is at minimum.

The official daily sunspot number (DSSN) was 15.

There had been 8 consecutive days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) above 0.

In 2019 there had been 15 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

In 2018 there had been 221 days with an official daily sunspot number (DSSN) of 0.

One sunspot group #12733 had set around the west limb of the sun.

A small C1.3 and C5.0 class solar flare occurred in association with sunspot group #12733.

The 24 hour period 3 hour interval planetary K index (Kp) had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition of

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.

The 24 hour period planetary A index (Ap) maximum and minimum values ranged between

4 & 0,

which had been at a quiet geomagnetic condition.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum Disturbance Storm Time Index (Dst) ranged between

-3 & +9 nT.

The 24 hour period maximum and minimum solar wind speed was

342 & 279 km/s.

No Earth directed (geoeffective) coronal mass ejection (CME) was observed in available coronagraph imagery.

Very large coronal hole (CH) #905 (#902) became (earth facing) geoeffective. Last time around as #902 it created minor (Kp-5, Ap-48) geomagnetic storming.

GLOBAL (HF) HIGH FREQUENCY (3000-30000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

HF-MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Jan 30, 2019- steady.

HF-MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Jan 31, 2019- steady then minor deterioration.

HF-MF radio wave propagation condition “trend” on Feb 1, 2019- minor then moderate deterioration.

Northern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the winter season northern hemisphere HF-MF radio wave propagation season.
The approximate 11000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes sooner due to less sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is higher than in the southern hemisphere as the F layer of the ionosphere is lower in height and the ions more concentrated.
The approximately 3000-10000 kHz frequency range often stays open for DX all throughout the day due to a weaker D and E layer and therefore less RF signal absorption.
Northern Hemisphere Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9 +1 to 9 at night and S1-3 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+ 1 to 9 at night and
S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S0 at night and S3-4 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,
28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.

Southern Hemisphere HF Radio Wave Propagation Forecast g-

We are now in the summer season southern hemisphere HF-MF radio wave propagation season.

The 14000- 30000 kHz frequency range closes later due to more sun light illuminating the ionosphere than in the southern hemisphere. But the maximum usable frequency (MUF) is lower than in the southern hemisphere as heating in the F2 layer of the ionosphere is higher and the layer ions less concentrated.

Almost daily during the northern hemisphere summer season you will find that the 25600- 26100 kHz and 28000-29700 kHz frequency ranges will open via short north-south and east-west propagation paths via sporadic E (Es). Also when multiple sporadic E (Es) clouds form and line up favorably much longer propagation paths open up on east-west paths. And last but not least north-south propagation paths occur across the equator via trans equatorial propagation (TEP).

3150-3400, 3500-4100, 4750-5050, 5700-6300 kHz- S9+10 at night and S3-5 at day,

6900-7800, 9200-9995, 10000-10150, 11500-12200 kHz- S9+15 at night and
S4-7 at day,

13570-13850, 14000-14350, 15005-15900, 17450-17950, 18068-18168 kHz- S1-3 at night and S5-8 at day,

21000-21850 kHz- S0 at night and S1-2 at day,

24890-24990, 25600-26100 kHz- S0 at night and S1 at day,

28000-29700 kHz- S0 at night and S0 at day.


GLOBAL (MF) MEDIUM FREQUENCY (300-3000 KHZ) RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS EXPECTED-

FORECASTED NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S9-+5-10
*North <-> South To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S7-8
+South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S5-6

FORECASTED SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE SHORT PATH-
-East <-> West To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S9
*South <-> North To 1100 Mi /1800 km
S7-8
+North <-> South To 1100 Mi / 1800 km
S5-6

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Northern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S7-8
Mid Latitude
S9+5-10
Low latitude
S9-+1

FORECASTED GREAT CIRCLE LONG OR SKEWED PATH-
Southern Hemisphere (TA) Trans Atlantic, (TI) Trans Indian, (TP) Trans Pacific and cross Equatorial propagation conditions in excess of approximately 3200 mi / 5200 km-

High Latitude
S2-3
Mid Latitude
S6-7
Low latitude
S4-5


This HF-MF Radio wave propagation forecast is produced based on the SIGINT_CAP HF-MF radio wave propagation prediction software.
I wrote it beginning in the late 1980’s but I’m sorry to say that it still can’t be distributed to the general public. It does outperform VOA CAP and Prop Lab.
I do check the actual band conditions at my location in the USA and tweak the forecast manually where and when necessary.

I also check global HF-MF radio wave propagation conditions via remoted radio
receivers on every continent of the globe and tweak the forecast manually if
and when necessary.

And last but not least I look at ionsonde stations on every continent of the
globe.

The hamateur radio JT65A mode RF signal levels received are based on 5 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio PSK31 mode RF signal levels received are based on 25
watts and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio CW mode RF signal levels received are based on 50 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The hamateur radio SSB RF mode signal levels received are based on 100 watts
and ½ wave dipole up at 40 feet.

The HF shortwave broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on
100,000 watts (100 kw) and a typical high gain VOA type curtain array
antenna.

The MF broadcast band AM Mode RF signal levels are based on 50,000 watts (50 kw) and an omnidirectional vertical antenna.

Please keep in mind that this is a relatively simplified HF-MF radio wave
propagation forecast, so as to keep it easily understandable and applicable
by the average radio enthusiast.

THE FOLLOWING IS EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL ON SOLAR, SPACE, GEOMAGNETIC WEATHER OBSERVING AND IONOSPHERE GOINGS ON. ALSO HF AND MF RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION CONDITIONS AND FORECASTING.
Globally HF-MF radio wave propagation conditions are most evenly balanced
during the fall and spring equinoxes and most diametrically opposed during
the summer and winter solstices.

Conditions change daily, weekly, monthly, yearly and by decade, as the
sun rises and sets at different times and at different angles from the
ecliptic, as well as by radio wave frequency. This is due to changes in the
maximum usable frequency (MUF), lowest usable frequency (LUF) and F layer
critical frequency (FoF2). Also by propagation path.

The D and E layers also come into play through RF radio wave signal
absorption and refraction. And then there is sporadic E (Es) radio wave
propagation that can really throw a wrench into the gears so to speak.

Things like sporadic E (Es) radio wave propagation and lightning storm
static can impact HF radio wave propagation in an unpredictable manner and
mostly bad.

Ongoing solar, space and geomagnetic weather goings on also impact HF radio.

Lower high frequency (80-30 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner not so much by variations in the maximum usable frequency
(MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to
geomagnetic elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms (Kp-5 &
greater) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the altitude of
the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D
layer RF signal absorption due to hard x-rays, galactic cosmic waves,
elevated background solar flux levels greater than B0 and energetic proton
flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

Higher frequency (20-10 meters) propagation conditions are impacted in a
negative manner by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a
particular propagation path and time due to the current sunspot number and
also due to elevated geomagnetic conditions (Kp-3-4), storms of Kp-5 &
greater. Also D layer RF signal absorption due to elevated (greater than B0)
background solar flux levels. Also to a lesser extent elevated proton flux
at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL HF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

NOTE!!! The propagation indices "interpretations" are my personal
intellectual property. Therefore the HF-MF radio wave propagation indices
interpretations contained herein is copyrighted © 1988-2019 by Thomas F.
Giella, W4HM, all rights reserved. Reproduction of information herein is
allowed without permission in advance as long as proper credit is given.

All 14 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to
see the best global high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation possible,
something that happens only rarely.

1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.

2.) A daily sunspot number of 150 or higher, 200 or higher best.

3.) A daily sunspot number of greater than 100 for routine stable formation
of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days
consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer
than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic protons no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels greater than B1 for several days
consecutively, greater than C1 best.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign,
indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora
absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF
signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery
time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A
positive number is best.

GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING CORRELATION OF PROPAGATION INDICES TO ACTUAL MF PROPAGATION CONDITIONS-

Medium frequency (300-3000 khz) radio wave propagation conditions are impacted in a negative manner not by variations in the maximum usable frequency (MUF) along a particular propagation path and time but rather due to energetic electron flux levels at energies greater than 2 MeV (2+1), geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-3-4) and geomagnetic storms (Kp-5 & >) that increase signal absorption via the E layer (the general altitude of the radio aurora). Also increases in the lowest usable frequency (LUF) via D layer signal absorption due to elevated background solar flux levels greater than A0, proton flux levels at energies greater than 10 MeV (10+0), hard x-rays and galactic cosmic rays.
There is also the issue of magneto ionic power coupling. Antenna polarization plays a large role in the success of a long haul MF DX contact. As a MF RF signal traverses Earth's magnetic lines of force in a perpendicular manner on high and mid latitude paths say between W3 land and SM, higher angle horizontally polarized signals are more readily absorbed than lower angle vertically polarized signals. On other propagation paths on the globe opposite results can be found, i.e., horizontally polarized signals suffer less absorption on a propagation path between VK6 and W6 or S9 and W4.
Unfortunately the simplest way to look at medium frequencies with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one maximum distance refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
All 13 of the following indices have to occur as described below in order to see the best global medium frequency (MF) radio wave propagation possible.
The simplest way to look at medium frequencies (MF) with respect to radio wave propagation conditions is to accept the fact that propagation is poor the majority of the time, especially past approximately 1250 miles (one refraction off of the E layer), with occasional short-lived good periods as far as 3200 miles.
1.) Dropping geomagnetic field indices numbers are better, Kp of 0 best.
2.) A daily sunspot number under 100, under 70 best.
3.) A daily sunspot number no higher then the 100 for routine stable formation of the E Valley/F Layer ducting mechanism.

4.) Previous 24 hour Ap index under 10, fewer than 7 for several days consecutively are best.

5.) Previous 3 hours Kp index fewer than 3 for mid latitude paths, fewer than 2 for high latitude paths, 0 for several days consecutively is best.

6.) Energetic proton flux levels no greater than 10 MeV (10+0).

7.) Background x-ray flux levels of A0 for several days consecutively.

8.) No current STRATWARM alert.

9.) Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz with a (positive number) sign, indicates a lesser chance of high latitude path aurora absorption/unpredictable refraction or scattering of medium frequency RF signals, when the Kp is above 3.

10.) A -10 or better towards a positive number Dst index during the recovery time after a geomagnetic storm, as related to the equatorial ring current. A positive number is best.
11.) Galactic cosmic rays decrease to -3 units below zero and trending towards zero.
12.) Energetic electron flux levels no greater than 2 MeV (2+0).
13. A solar wind speed of less than 300 km/s for several days consecutively.

Standard Disclaimer-

Note! I use error prone RAW public domain data from the NOAA Space
Environment Center, other U.S. government entities and educational
institutions, to produce this daily HF-MF radio wave propagation
forecast. This data is gathered and made public by the U.S. Government using
taxpayer $$$ (including mine).

However this daily HF/MF propagation forecast that I produce from the RAW
public domain data is my personal intellectual property. Therefore this
daily HF-MF radio wave propagation forecast contained herein is copyrighted ©
1988-2019 by Thomas F. Giella, W4HM.

Feel free without prior permission to redistribute this daily HF/MF radio wave
propagation forecast, as long as you redistribute it in its entirety and
give me credit for it.

Also HF-MF radio wave propagation forecasting is still an inexact
science and therefore also an art. The forecasts are not official but for
educational and hobby related purposes only and are subject to human error

and acts of God, therefore no guarantee or warranty implied.